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🤑 Leading-edge slat - Wikipedia

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Slats are surfaces on the leading edge of the of which, when deployed, allow the wing to operate at a higher.
A higher coefficient of lift is produced as a result of angle of attack and speed, so by deploying slats an aircraft can fly at slower speeds, or take off and land in shorter distances.
They are usually used while landing or performing maneuvers which take the aircraft close to thebut are usually retracted in normal flight to minimize.
Slats are one of several used onsuch as systems running along the trailing edge of the wing.
The position of the leading-edge slats on an airliner.
In slots and wings picture, the slats are drooped.
Note also the extended.
As the aircraft slows down, the aerodynamic force is click here and the springs extend the slats.
Sometimes referred to as Handley-Page slats.
Fixed The slat is permanently extended.
This is sometimes used on specialist low-speed aircraft these are referred to as or when simplicity takes precedence over speed.
Powered The slat extension can be controlled by the pilot.
This is commonly used on airliners.
The slats may extend over the outer third of the wing, or they may cover the entire.
Many early aerodynamicists, includingbelieved that slats work by inducing a high energy stream to the flow of the mainthus re-energizing its and delaying stall.
In reality, the slat does not give the air in the slot high velocity it actually reduces its velocity and also it cannot be called high-energy air since all the air outside the actual boundary layers has the same total heat.
The actual effects of the slat are: The slat effect The velocities at the slots and wings edge of the downstream element main are reduced due to the of the upstream element slat thus reducing the pressure peaks of the downstream element.
The circulation effect The circulation of the downstream element increases the circulation of the upstream element thus improving its aerodynamic performance.
The dumping effect The discharge velocity at the trailing edge of the slat is increased due to the circulation of the main airfoil thus alleviating separation problems or increasing lift.
Off the surface pressure recovery The deceleration of the slat wake occurs in an efficient manner, out of contact with a wall.
Fresh boundary layer effect Each new element starts out with a fresh at its.
Thin boundary layers can withstand stronger adverse than thick ones.
The slat has a counterpart found in the wings of some birds, thea feather or group slots and wings feathers which the bird can extend under control of slots and wings "thumb".
The stall-related crash in August 1917 of click to see more aeroplane prompted Lachmann to develop the idea and a small wooden model was built in 1917 in.
In Germany in 1918 Lachmann presented a patent for leading-edge slats.
However, the German patent office at first rejected it as the office did not believe the possibility of postponing the stall by dividing the wing.
Independently of Lachmann, Ltd in Great Britain also developed the slotted wing as a way to postpone the stall by delaying separation of the flow from the upper surface of the wing at high angles of attack, and applied for a patent in 1919; to avoid a patent challenge, they reached an ownership agreement with Lachmann.
That year a was fitted with slats and test flown.
Several years later, having subsequently taken employment at the Handley-Page aircraft company, Lachmann was responsible for a number of aircraft designs, including the.
Licensing the design became one of the company's major sources of income in the 1920s.
The original designs were in the form of a fixed slot near the leading edge of the wing, a design that was used on a number of aircraft.
During World War II, German aircraft commonly fitted a more advanced version of the slat that reduced by being pushed back flush against the leading edge of the wing bypopping out when the angle of attack increased to a critical angle.
Notable slats of that time belonged to the German Storch.
These were similar in design to retractable slats, but were fixed and non-retractable.
This design feature allowed the aircraft to take-off into a light wind in less than 45 m 150 ftand land in 18 m 60 ft.
Aircraft designed by the company employed automatic, spring-loaded leading-edge slats as a general rule, except for the -designed Komet rocket fighter, which instead used fixed slots built integrally with, and just behind, the wing panel's outer leading edges.
Post-World War II, slats have also been used on larger aircraft and generally operated by or.
These may be used in many UAVs and 6th generation.
One promising approach that could rival slats are flexible wings.
In flexible wings, much or all of a wing surface can change shape in flight to deflect air flow.
The is a effort.
The is a military and commercial effort.
Handley Page 2012-11-03 at the Flight, December 22nd 1921, photo page 845 of converted D.
Archived from on 16 June 2011.
Retrieved 26 April 2011.
Ann Arbor, MI; Dayton, OH, USA: FlexSys Inc.
Archived from PDF on 22 March 2012.
Retrieved 26 Slots and wings 2011.
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Wikipedia® is slots and wings registered trademark of thea non-profit organization.

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Amsterdamer Beitrage zur alteren Germanistik. Band 63 - 2007 (Amsterdamer Beitrage Zur Alteren Germanistik) (German Edition) - PDF Free Download
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Aviation Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for aircraft pilots, mechanics, and enthusiasts.
Join them; it only takes a minute: If you look at slots and wings 5-18 in the PHAK Chapter 5 about leading edge lift devices you see this: However the paragraph preceding it states High-lift devices also can be applied to the leading edge of slots and wings airfoil.
The most common types are fixed slots, movable slats, leading edge flaps, and cuffs.
So is this a typo?
Should the image say 'movable slat' instead of 'movable slot'?
This leads into my main question which is, what are the differences between a slat and check this out slot?
If I were to get asked this by an examiner what would a good response be?
I guess it should be movable slat.
A leading slots and wings slot is basically a spanwise opening in the wing.
Slats are aerodynamic surfaces in the leading edge, which when deployed, allows the wing to operate at higher angle of attack.
When deployed, the slat opens up a slot between itself and slots and wings wing.
In this case, the terms slot and slat are used interchangeably.
Licensed under CC BY 3.
A number of airliners use movable slats, in which case, the system is called slat, rather than slot.
Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.
In short, the system is pretty much the same, but is usually called slat in case of movable one and slot in case of fixed one.
It seems to me that fixed slot is simply a see more, spanwise hole in the leading edge of the wing.
It would be fair.
This was the meaning in which.
The droop is usually a deployable LE device.
LE cuff is a fixed LE droop and is used as a general term, which probably got its name from the shape of the sharp cut off point.
NASA did a lot of research into this for spin resistance and called it drooped LE, not cuff.
Provide details and share your research!
Use MathJax to format equations.
To learn more, see our.
Browse other questions tagged or.

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LET EVERY LAND SET ASIDE THEIR WRATH AND DESPAIR, AND RELEASE THE EMPTY PROMISES OF CHANGE, FOR I AM THE JOY OF NOW AND THE VINDICATION OF LIFE.
Not of this planet of Carstein, not of sector Aetern, not of segmentum Tempestus, but of the whole of the Imperium.
I know not what the future holds but a glimmer of hope.
Everything that is about to occur will put every human through a hell not seen since the Emperor's internment upon the golden throne, but play bingo and slots we survive the onslaught the whole of the future belongs to us for the rest of eternity.
Stand tall my brethren, my sisters, not for our lives but for our children's, for our father's, for each other.
We have but ten years to prepare.
We laid the foundations and read article of the place back in the first thread, now we need to fill it in.
Our goal is to create a better and more compelling sector than halfchan's neglected Tiji.
Thus far, we have advanced well in that direction, but we can't stop there.
We need a place which can be played in.
Together, our autism should be sufficient.
Now… The Ætern Sector Aetern is an acceptable spelling is a part of the Imperium of Man skirting the edges of the Veiled Regions, and within the bounds of Segmentum Tempestus.
Imperial forces carved it out some three or four thousand years before the present, but humans have inhabited it for much longer.
It is a relatively sparse region of space, only containing a few dozen stars and few planets of mineral wealth; in addition, stellar activity and climates are often colder than average in Ætern, exacerbated by the shadowy phenomena of the Veil among other factors.
The Imperium controls much of the sector, though its reach weakens further into the clouds, and ceases altogether in the region's center.
Ætern is divided into four sub-sectors technically five surrounding the center, clockwise: Vladimur's Domain, housing the Sector Capital CarsteinSothoth Deeps, containing the Adeptus Mechanicus hub BelmondFüggönyfal, the Veil-choked permanent frontier, and the Bram Highlands, paradoxically containing a seat of Ecclesiarchal control Himmelwelt and primary destination for a unique xenos-and-human immigration problem sector-wide.
This problem is termed the Pharos Aeterno Effect, an inexplicable lure radiated across the galaxy from the sector's center, the Ænigma Damnatio, a bizarre and impossibly old doppled warp anomaly composed of the Brass Labyrinthe and the Forever Pit below it.
The Pharos draws in the unwanted, the undesirable, and the misfit in their billions every year through infectious dreams, and within Ætern they come to ideal cops and robbers online slot thanks />The peoples living within all move to a rhythm of the sector, billions migrating often in circular fashion around the sub-sectors.
It is their blood, souls, and actions which fuel Ætern, both in mild prosperity and in the coming damnation.
The forces of Chaos boil within the center and rampage without, aliens swarm in from all corners of the galaxy, a Daemon-god bellows in its maze, and a great clock counts down to midnight.
Shock and awe as they drop from orbit onto the enemy.
The local Imperial forces and authorities have a de-facto leader in Cardinal Astral Reineke Aucher von Hautkopft, who is somewhere between space Bismarck and space Richelieu.
He's getting the Imperials worked up for the coming Crusade.
They can't leave not more than ten years at leastso they make sure the inmates can't either.
A flock of fighter pilot Sororitas who are also on good terms with the cogboys lend them and any other Imperial forces a wing.
They seek to bring about some Judgement in the near-future, and may accelerate their plans depending on what the Inquisition and Cardinal Hautkopft do.
That pulsar contains a C'tan shard.
One of the worlds is the third dynastic seat, its C'tan loyalist master still asleep and his army trapped.
Tinboy Mekz splintered off from a WAAAGH hold another world.
Something orange is in a dyson sphere within the same system.
A Mechanicus Ghost Forge with its Titan Legion is waking up there too.
Some things might be lurking in the local tunnels through reality.
Fun fact, "dragul" in Slav tongue also means "jewel".
Maybe as some sort of penance?
I remember that the Forever Pit used to be a mine before the Slaaneshi got hold of it, or did that change in the meantime?
If it didn't, maybe the gems come from there, and the whole cultist thing is them being ridiculously into repenting for letting the Slaaneshi even get a hold there.
Giant but mindless tyranid bioforms can be found on some less civilized worlds elsewhere.
They brought in an Ork Waaagh to balance out the factions, but that might bite them in the ass.
Dark Mechanicus enclaves profit from the situation and research sectoral mysteries.
We don't know anything else about her yet.
There's also a bunch of poor exodites and humans as well as half-breeds who regularly get terrorized by a transformative nanite plague.
Nanites are inherently anti-Nurgle, but that doesn't stop Nurgle-oriented Dark Mechanicus from very carefully poking at them.
There might also be Vampire and Sensei afoot.
He is like a more successful Skarbrand in that he got away more or less unscathed.
Possibly ate a Keeper of Secrets and an avatar of Khaine.
Either way, his warpsent bellowing and millennial rampages mark him as the go-to BBEG of the sector.
However, he's really just a distraction from something else.
Hashut is like the fugly cuckoo that pops out every 1K years, each time out longer than the last.
Something warpy yet not daemonic calls beings to the sector, causes it to be colder, dimmer, and puts things into a specific order and rhythm.
It seems the imperial forces are slightly immune thanks to the flow of energy around Carstein, and the orkz are entirely immune.
That said, cults have sprung up sector-wide devoted to it, to the point where they could be called their own faction.
It may be Hashut, it may be Arianka, it may be an Eldar god, it may be an Slaan device from the War in Heaven.
It https://free-slots-money.website/and-slot/cross-drilled-and-slotted-rotors-direction.html be even older than that.
Whatever it is, it's counting down and will soon strike Midnight.
They're regiments of fast-attack and drop-shock troops, trained to butcher urban foes and insurgents with sociopathic gusto.
Carstein's PDF are the tanky, motorized, shock-and-awe guys, and they're a weird blend of Romanian flamboyance with Imperial Guard efficiency and tech.
The Militias are all over the place, time period-wise, but can roughly be compared to Kislev with much more blessings and holy items.
Also, yes, I came across one definition putting it as "precious.
The draconic and vampire imagery fits what they are and how they behave.
Winged grav-chutes and skull masks are the norm there.
Troops from other regiments from across the Segmentum and Imperium wind up in Ætern one way or another, washed up from the Warp like flotsam, misdirected there by clerical error, or simply following the sector's Call.
Sometimes, the culture clash can be a tad extreme, and violent misunderstandings like in pics-related can happen.
Thankfully, long practice with visitors means many of these separate pieces are eventually re-integrated into the Imperial command structure.
The rest join the nomadic flow, hide out on frontier worlds, or go renegade as outlaws or heretics.
For Astartes, the local Deathwatch usually takes them in.
As a result, it enjoys a fair variety of Marines from different parts of the Galaxy despite operating in a backwater.
More or less, yes.
The goal is to write out blanks, fill in holes, and build on what we've got.
This sector can tolerate a lot of weird stuff, so you have a good amount of leeway.
Just don't try to bring in the Tau as a faction.
Only individuals or small knots of them even make sense out here thank their location and how safely they travel for that.
Honestly they're closest to Mound Builder's covenant.
They attack all sides at random, to retrieve the most obscure shit, for purposes that escape all but the most lore-wise scholars.
Possibly in homage to a big bad that is alluded to but never seen, and often substituted for by lesser evils, and has champions who register as end-bosses om the difficulty scale.
These are for generating further content.
Tweak as needed Modify any "Jungles" to "Forests".
The creation tables below contain examples of their use.
Used for the Voivode's Dragulmen, Carstein Armoured Gauntlet PDFand Carstein Militias.
Used for the Dragulmen Hussar Corps.
Used for the Mothers of the Abyss and the Order of the Burning Void.
Used for the "Desert Tempests".
Used for The Hidden Hands, The Hunter's Moon, and 'The Floating Butcher's Bill.
See those three Inquisitor generator charts up there?
We need men and women fit for a Conclave.
I'll see about rolling up one in a little bit.
For now, material writefaggotry on said Conclave: Stories from far in the past tell of a great king who ruled his cthonic realm in a cold grip of iron.
This king resented the warmth and light kings above enjoyed, but also saw their brash warmongering and decadent excess, and knew them for folly.
The kings above were afraid of the king below, for his realm was great.
He took them all, commoner and noble, freeman and prisoner, slave and prince, law-abiding or criminal.
He treated them all like his own subjects, and gave each and every one of them a place.
His one iron-clad condition was that they could never leave, though few wished to or could, such was his tranquil law.
Through this, his realm was ever renewed and populous, and the king was satisfied with it.
He was not happy, however, for it was lonely and burdensome at times to sit upon the throne.
Thus, he reached unto the surface to find those whom could share his burden and keep his company… that others might understand.
Four thousand years have passed since the date of this sector's founding complete with conclave!
Two thousand and five hundred years have gone since the august assembly cracked the mystery of the Brass Maze, that every so often it opens and belches forth its abominable Legions in some damnable pattern.
Eight hundred forty eight years have marched away since my predecessors ciphered that damnable pattern into a set number of years per millennium.
Eight hundred forty years, and the Conclave began deliberating on it.
Seven hundred years ago, they agreed that the Brass Bull laughing in their back yard needed to be dealt with in a timely fashion.
Six hundred twenty years ago, Segmentum indicated its own agreement.
Five hundred eighty two years ago, some damnable adept-savant by the name of Rhesus commenced a study with his master's blessing.
Five hundred fifty eight years ago, Rhesus's finding stated that we could not attack the Maze in force before a certain point and expect to damage the Bull's forces.
Five hundred fifty eight years later, we're still preparing for that fight… God Emperor, let this confrontation start before I start going white.
I expect him to start obsessing over chronology by evensong with the rest of those clock-watchers.
Radicals… at least those Xanthites bring results, even if they're practically heretics already…Maybe I should order Venna to take a pict-thief to Aleksy's notes, just to be sure.
M41 Every prison worth its thrones needs a panopticon.
Every panopticon needs to be watched.
Once upon a time it was a space elevator that reached unto the moons.
Their crews are oathsworn to the Inquisitor Lord of Conclave Æterno, and they are only scrambled in the direst of emergencies.
They will protect the Emperor's Reach at all costs, and will not surrender to any figure lower than the Lord Inquisitor.
This is a place of Sector-wide importance, and while the "Dowel Theory" is mainly linked with Radicals, the Inquisition is taking no chances.
Funny thing about that nanite virus.
The Eldar have a "burn on sight" approach to anything involved in it.
They're terrified of getting close to it, and even go out of their way to hunt down those infected by it as long as its strategically viable - they won't attack an entire hive world if one person has a virus, but they'll try to assassinate them or drop something from orbit at them - they won't even use orks for this.
The few times the Eldar worked alongside the Deathwatch marines, they brought heavy weapons against the biomechanical horrors the virus creates.
The Eldar called the virus "the castaway gaze of the old guard".
The only real data they gave the Deathwatch was "don't let the Orks near it".
Apparently the Aetern sector has a larger than usual number of mekboyz, and all of them seem infected in some way.
All of these mekboyz end up obsessed with building the biggest ship around and ramming it into the Brass Labyrinth.
So far, each attempt failed because the mekboyz will start going after each other in order to steal their ship and add it to the largest interstellar missile.
One of the mekboyz has set his eyes on the Space Hulk, and is gearing up for a WAAAGH to take it and convert it.
The infected orks call themselves krorks.
I tried that chart once.
I rolled up an alpha plus psyker on a luxus yacht, full of ancient knowledge and archeotech with ties to the imperial navy and a free ladders game slot and snakes past.
The kind of character you can use to create the problems the party has to face later and who they will never ever meet.
Unusable even as a GMPC.
But I rather like the explanation you have for it.
So, I think I'll combine those explanations.
However, humanity at the height of its technological prowess was skilled enough to retrieve samples without turning on the whole batch.
They researched it, tried to figure out how it worked, and then, fatefully, tried to modify it to solve their woes.
On Demeter, it worked far too well.
From there on, the nanites cycled their way throughout the planet's ecosystem, and once they ran out of complex life-forms to use, went dormant.
A world of seemingly fertile fields was left to the ages, just waiting for hungry colonists to sow their crops.
At various times since its discovery on Demeter, the contagion threatened to extinguish Imperial authority sector-wide, most critically in the initial pandemic of M37.
Since then, the Holy Ordos purged or isolated the most dangerous viral strains to Bram Highlands Sub-sector.
Quarantine operations are in place, and the Ordos eliminate reported outbreaks with all speed.
However, the contagion has splintered and mutated in the millennia since into sub-strains and new sicknesses.
Their spread causes grief and complication across the sector, and is deemed the cause of an ongoing if arguably controlled and thankfully localized xenos-human casino slots and poker />A communications breakdown has made it widely known that the Nanoplague originated on planet Demeter, colloquially known as Blightstone.
Munitorum investigation indicates that these shipments endured minimal inspection, an oversight that would prove costly.
Every last harvest was tainted, and the contagion spread to every planet and station that received shipments from Demeter.
Administratum records indicate that local authorities initially dismissed symptoms as the result of previously-undiagnosed psychological defects or reactions to environmental stigma.
Then anarchy set in.
Fringe outposts and isolated vessels ceased all contact.
Worlds in the Highlands began rebuffing intra-sector trade.
Astropaths and sanctioned psykers reported sensations of an "oily absence" in the Warp.
Planet Justiciam became increasingly insular over the course of a month, culminating in attempted secession.
Standard procedure would have been to repopulate Justiciam with new colonists following the eradication of the apparent cult presence.
However, the discovery of the Nanoplague's advanced symptoms put those designs on hold and drew the full attention of the Inquisition.
Now that's the kind of figure who shapes legacies and major sectoral events in the background.
You might want to tweak the results slightly for a regular Inquisitor.
Rolled up a guard regiment months back.
Haven't really fluffed it up because my imagination isn't as good as it used to be.
On initial hostilities with the rebels, Imperial Guard Captain Zhugashvil of the 151st Praagine Landsmen 1st Company encountered disorientation and flat affect akin to a recent genestealer infestation.
The difference lay in how the infected committed suicide bombing strikes or closed to unarmed melee before their ammunition ran out.
Trooper accounts note a grey residue on their flesh and silvered veins in their eyes.
Imperial losses in breaching the capital perimeter were comparatively light.
When they stormed the outskirt hab-blocks, the Landsmen found them empty, as if let sit for over a week without change.
A city of five million souls had seemingly been abandoned in a moment.
Save for the automated transit systems, the streets were deserted.
Upon reaching the main street, scouts reported a silvery haze in the air towards the city center, thickening to a mist in the distance.
After Captain Zhugashvil received this information and passed it on, he instructed his men to prepare for NBC conditions before proceeding.
This order was to save half the company's lives in the following engagement.
Their chimeras encountered the first resistance roughly a kilometer into the mist.
Dozens of groundcars connected to each other by masses of elastic grey flesh crashed into Zhugashvil's company.
Impact damage to the chimeras was minimal, damage to their treads from the monomolecular blades and powerful metal tendrils forming out of the car interiors was immobilizing.
The Landsmen discovered that the enemy's strikes were blind and uncoordinated at that point, reaching into chimeras' firing slots to flail at anything in reach.
Lasfire severed fleshy limbs and bolter rounds destroyed metallic parts, but the front chimeras had to evacuate from the sheer mass of limbs invading.
Reports stated that each component vehicle emitted the silvery mist from its tailpipe throughout the skirmish, together with a muffled ululating groan.
Using its limbs, the entity rendered abandoned vehicles apart before seemingly incorporating them into its structure to use as rams.
The moment which turned the skirmish around occurred when chimera 4's bolter magazine took a hit from a multilaser and detonated.
more info 4 destroyed itself in the chain reaction, setting the entity's connecting limbs aflame.
Muffled groans became piercing shrieks of agony as the fire briefly ignited the mist, incinerating the limbs and clearing much of the air along that section of road.
While fifteen guardsmen were martyred in the fire, the entity began a frenzied retreat the way whence it came.
Though 1st Company was the tip of the Praagine spear, Zhugashvil wisely called for reinforcement after he saw clearer what lay ahead.
First, think about why such abhumans would be sent into the void.
Think about why such people would be so zealous in their hatred of both themselves and daemons.
And then why females specifically.
Just what kinda freaks are these girls?
At least try to fluff them before you give up.
I was the one who rolled up the planet where the nanite plague originates, and I feel like I didn't explain it well enough.
Same sub-sector, though, and I wouldn't be surprised if Agharta's acquired its own unique and horrible strain of nanoplague.
They're a very well-equipped space marine chapter that practices pragmatism and stoicism over zealotry and superstition.
They were intended to go to the front-lines of an ongoing conflict, but were accidentally sent to a logistically unimportant planet in the ætern sector due to a mistake in the Administratum.
The Tempests use the tribesmen as auxiliary toops, but often have to fight those same tribes in frequent chaos outbreaks.
As such, they often find the same expensive equipment they give to their tribal allies in the hands of cultists and pointed at them.
The Tempests also have had a few conflicts with the Be'enteshai, including a three-way slugfest between the DTs, a Be'enteshai warfleet, and a greater chaos demon.
They don't interact with the other Imperial elements in the sector very often due to their remoteness, but such meetings often revolve around questions like "why are you guarding an unimportant desert planet in the middle of nowhere?
What happens when outside Imperial forces arive on Wazir?
Taking a break from the nanoplague writing to try out those tables.
Knows a good deal about river currents and the kind of traffic you get on them.
Can't trust anyone else to keep quiet.
Trapped somewhere in the tunnels beneath Sothoth Deeps is a relatively small space hulk, leant against the wall so that it doesn't move.
He calls it The Missing Quarter.
The entrance to that particular tunnel is hidden behind a portion of Veil.
Inquisitor-Freiherr Johann Straßer-Keblin von Grunstrom, at the Conclave's service and eager to root out xenos-loving degenerates in this side of the sector, Throne dash it all.
Given his long experiences in Ætern, however, his investigations often overlap with the other Ordos.
The number of times this has led him to uncover Obscuro-type threats troubles him.
He takes only a little pride in it, as being the warden of an immense backwater prison isn't all that it's cracked up to be.
The title is a sacred burden and duty, and he is as much a prisoner as the rest.
Even if he could leave, however, he would never.
Through intermediaries and unaware agents, he pits cults against each other and then destroys the victors.
He also occasionally consults with the Eldar of Craftworld Arhanrhod, to the point of being on speaking terms with Autarch Lugh-hann and carrying an Eldar laspistol disguised as archaeotech.
Antephatus as a mentor tends to subtlely shape his pupils so that they employ lateral thinking in their investigations, the pupils themselves running the gamut from ex-Administratum scribes to Abhumans.
He even took one as his consort, and she returned to him even after receiving the rosette.
His duty as Lord-Plutonic holds him fast and will never let go.
Radical he may be, but all of his deeds are guided by the necessity of the task the only reason he took up a consort at all was due to the rationale that it would keep him sane.
In his younger years, his duty as an Inquisitor led him to a strict arms training regimen, and he was often at the forefront of raids and skirmishes.
He keeps to his regimen still a crack shotbut now relies more on his agents to be aggressive for him.
His is the recovery and discussion of ancient literature.
He can tell a fair tale too, when the mood strikes.
Both arms and a shoulder needed replacement with augmetics over time, and his left cheek needed a ceramic plate worked over it after it was supernaturally frostbitten.
His legs have also been modified to give him a surprise boost of speed when needed.
The likelihood of him deploying with his acolytes increases whenever a Hashutite cult must be destroyed.
It also pays to know what the sector's underworld does, and to have blackmail material on every kingpin and crime lord within it.
They mutate out of control, meaning that they can be wildly varied in terms of size, shape, strength, intelligence, number of appendages, abilities, etc.
What doesn't change is their incredible hunger for violence, especially against daemons and chaos.
They seem attracted to it, like ants to honey.
Yet, they are highly resistant to its influence, if not immune entirely.
They will attack and consume non-chaos targets just as often though.
Their adaptability and hardiness is incredible, allowing them to live in harsh environments and inhospitable terrain.
They tend to steal technology, equipment, and ships from other species, as the average individual usually isn't very smart.
The danger come when an individual appears with exceptional strength, intelligence, or both, and leads swarms of them on rampages across the stars seemingly at random.
Thieir hierarchy is highly chaotic, being loosely based on overall skill and power, mirroring their erratic biology.
A Be'enteshai could theoretically develop any ability, given enough time, but most are simply mindless bugs.
Neva saw one, didja?
We gots an Ork wots lejundery.
An' trust me, I tried.
See dem gits ova dere?
Deyz off limits until I sez so.
Wot's da biggest, most aweshum thing we've eva' looted?
Wot did ya do wit it?
WE KNICKED A BUNCHA DEM BLUEBOYZ MEKS AND WE ROIT SNEKY.
OUR COLLAZ IS RED AND PURPLE 'N' WEZ AT WAR WIT' SOME ROIT WEIRD ALIENS.
Pirate gretchin wielding stolen Tau tech.
Either they fight the Be'enteshai, something in the Veil clouds, or or some thing in the tunnels.
Namely, "holes" in the fabric of reality which lead into a bizarre metaphysical cavern system, some of them acting as conduits to better move across the sub-sector, others leading into warp storms and even portals.
Some say that a number lead to the bottom of the galaxy.
In a sense, they're right, as these most primal of passages lead into the Forever Pit.
Things hide down here that have not seen the light of suns since time immemorial.
But they have no need to see, for all they need to do is hear.
As for what these tunnels are, well, you've probably seen the patterns found in some clock internals and ventilation systems… Something made these holes, something dark, something evil.
I've wandered down those strange ways in search of their makers, seeing sights best not seen and heard noises I can not remember without collapsing in pain.
Hands carved these halls, not with tools but with nails and bones and teeth and an all too terrible will.
I know not if these sickening creatures yet remain, but their presence will forever stain the planets they have afflicted.
These rats in the walls of reality.
However, finding them is a difficult task thanks to how vast the system is, and how incomplete the charts are.
That's not even getting into the pitfalls of collapses or sudden openings of new passagesstellar debris, time anomalies, and things that technically live and certainly hunger in the dark.
Oh sure, it's not quite the martial danger of making it past Chaotic fleets, warbands, and defenses around the Labyrinth, or the soul-scouring ordeal of braving the Warp storms surrounding the Pit itself; but the primal tunnels of Sothoth Deeps are by no means an easy way in.
They're just a different kind of terror.
Beware, for even if the Brass Lord and his minions cannot see you in these stygian depths, Ætern likely knows.
Pray that you meet the Guardian of Forever as a consequence, and not something worse.
All of this implies interesting things about Aetern's unfathomably ancient past.
Do you wish to go against him?
To embrace the ruinous powers?
The last time you came you were so much younger.
I's got an idea.
Back way over on the opposite side of things, in that wayward backwater where there truly is only war a freeboota ship had a revolt, while in the warp.
With all Orkz trying to put down the rebellion nobody was steering the ship, it smacks headlong into an Il'fannor Class Cruiser.
Well the Orkz love a good fight, they forget the grotz and board the vessel right aways.
The massacre averted, the grotz reform and scavenge off the dead orks, Tau, Kroot, and mop up the results of the fight.
Eventually after a few weeks of warp on gravitic pulse fuckery they get control of the ships enough to pop back into realspace.
Hydroponics becomes a massive jungle where the grotz hunt the occasional feral ork, the machine shop has a few Mekboyz clubbing about under the please click for source lazy eyes of guards, the rail guns have been modified to fire grot manned torpedos, the mechs are now the equivalent of killakhans with limited flight, and the drones now function as jetbikes with squigs strapped to the bottom.
These may be the only Orkoid forces in the galaxy with functional sniping.
Their leader, through countless succesful scuffles, is now the size of an average Tau Earth caste.
Also, here is an odd impression I get.
Time itself is in the grasp of the clockwork motion.
If one gives themselves over to the Emperor entirely, if one has as much faith as one could possibly have and then some, they'd be slipping against the time flow as well.
It would kind of be funny.
click at this page the clockwork be set back to the minutes it should be at then many entities would fall to dust, leaving bare souls in their stead.
That canonness and all her ilk of similar strength and age are potentially living saints should this event occur, if only for a few blessed moments.
Kind of like the Legion of the Damned.
Any would-be champion of Chaos in the Aetern sector has to make a pilgrimage to the Azor Azarath, the Festering Nail, the tallest structure on Havzook.
They say that Azor Azarath fell from the skies, long ago, as a flaming sword.
Others claim that it was always there, that whoever lived on Havzook before man stood on its surface worshiped the Dark Gods there.
Others still claim that the giant metallic structure rose from the ground itself, that the brutal world of Havzook itself gave birth to the temple of Chaos.
Whatever the case, the Inquisition keeps a close eye on it.
The tall, metallic structure can be seen from miles around, sticking out like a nail hence the name.
The area surrounding it is a swamp filled with toxic gas, burning oil, lethal radiation, and other unexplained phenomena.
Scout teams sent to the area report that the stones themselves are monsters lurking in ambush, and that the nuclear shadows that can be found everywhere are moving - sometimes even attacking people.
The Inquisition ordered the place to be bombed from orbit, but it didn't take - the Azor Azarath cannot be harmed by conventional means.
The only "good side" to the whole thing is that the area affected by the Festering Nail doesn't seem to spread, and that it only affects people who've already fallen to Chaos.
Thus, the Inquisition ordered the area to be put under quarantine until they research a way to level it for good.
The Inquisition has recently decided to speed up their attempts at destroying the Azor Azarath, or at least contain potential champions from coming through.
To do so, they build a giant wall that houses Imperial Guardsmen, alongside some Sorroritas and Space Marines.
They're desperate to prevent another Merkauth the Eternal from happening.
Merkauth climbed the tower.
He found the previous Eternal there, and sacrificed him to the Chaos Gods.
He etched his name in the Throne that sits on the top of the Nail.
Merkauth brought the sector down.
He climbed the tower again, and sat down on his throne, waiting for the next Eternal to climb.
Hmm, Khorne, Nurgle, both, or a mix of all?
Maybe a daemon prince of undivided got swordified as punishment, fell from the warp and now exists in a state of fuck you.
We now have a potential plotline for a full length story, like the everchampion in fantasy done right.
Goes in all John space marine, 'no John you are teh daemons' and then John was the daemons.
Looks like the Desert Tempests have a small vacation fortress, might be good terrain for neophyte training.
The assault on the tower, I forsee, would involve the legio titans in force.
Clearing a path, building a raised road over the worst of the troubling environment.
Make it look like the road to the temple in Shadow of the Colossus.
Rolled on the Heretical Cult Creation Table: It looks like it's a Rogue Trader dynasty worshipping something really obscure.
Cults of Society 1d20 Background Rogue Trader Gone Too Far: The Warrant of Trade gives Rogue Traders license to engage in a lot of activity that would be considered heretical in most circumstances but there is a point where this goes too far.
Through the interest of monetary wealth, hidden knowledge, xenos manipulation or chaos corruption, the Rogue Trader has delved into heresy and must be removed.
Cult Leadership Type 1D100 Central Figure: A single important individual holds leadership of the cult.
The Cult Leadership 1d20 Nature Something Else: same as above Whatever the leadership is, it is neither human-derived, xenos, nor daemonic, but a rare and often unique other.
Known examples have included Abominable Intelligences from the Dark Age of Technology or newer and cosmic phenomena.
The Inquisition is liable to label the entity itself as an Obscuro-type threat.
Leadership Style 1d10 Charisma: Through force of personality or sheer charm, the cult leader is universally revered by his followers.
His influence is felt even when he is physically absent.
Armaments and Defenses 1d20 Cover of Position, Shield of Repute: The cult has good publicity or someone influential to protect it from retribution.
Their unnatural armaments are nearly as deadly to the wielder as to his foes, but they remain a threat that should not be underestimated.
Beasts: The cult trains, breeds and alters living creatures to suit their goals and defend themselves from opponents.
Tokens of Allegiance 1d10 Marked Flesh: The perfidy of the cultists is worn on their very flesh.
They may bear a hidden brand or tattoo declaring their membership, or a worse deformity might mark them as among the ranks of an inhuman throng.
Hidden Sign: A rune or other visual motif identifies the cultists.
They might wear the sign on hidden pendants, hide it amidst other signs at businesses they control, or otherwise display it to those who know where to look.
Cult Allure 1D20 Power: While true power within a cult almost invariably resides within its upper echelons, if not within a single leader, some are able to maintain the illusion that their members can gain power by joining.
Rites and Observances of the Cult Blood Sacrifice: The sacrifice of living beings, from livestock to captured enemies, is a common way for cults to express their power.
The ritual is usually symbolic, although some cults have found ways to harness the spilled life for power.
Focus of Worship 1d20 Something Else in the Dark: The Galaxy is a place of immense scale, the Warp impossibly greater.
In all that space, many other things exist to bend Man's knee and twist his mind.
Those giant penguins are a staple of the Feast of the Emperor's Ascension in Aetern.
Another catastrophe between the foundation and the present?
Perhaps this happened during Years of Brass, creating a brutal two-front war which took time to recover from.
So what is their charismatic yet unfathomable leader?
How do they do it?
It sounds as though a Rogue Trader in the past went somewhere he shouldn't have, found some thing back to basics tem4500 4 slot egg and muffin toaster to sanity, and then founded the cult.
After all, it says that the leader isn't the Trader… Sorcery and power… power over time.
It seems it was the very canonness to whom she saw speaking with the inquisitor.
Methinks that, unlike other sisterly orders, this one does not ban the use of the warp, or at least recognizes the Emperor's faith is in part a form of it.
That of all things might have been their cause for expulsion.
Imagine, sister superior with access to all of the Astartes warp magics.
They might have some things in common with the ex-Thousand Sons across the gulf.
I found a photo in the oosphere Klaus Ozersky Dornier, of Rogue Trader House Dornier, rival to Milesceau.
Middle sibling of three sons and one daughter, Klaus was eager to find something in Ætern's depths to distinguish himself from the safe and stable trade of his brethren.
He travelled the length and breadth of the sector aboard his flagship cruiser, The White Hand, even skirting the edges of the veil for exotic flotsam on the tides.
Many wrecks and mineral-rich planetoids he found this way, but within them came more intriguing prizes.
Strange archaeotech from the early days of Man and varied written works from across the segmentum filled Klaus's rooms aboard the Hand.
In private he read the yield of the latter, mysteries of the Warp, of heathen gods, and the gabbling of clock-bound madmen.
And yet, all of these things frustrated him, because barely any of them could be brought to market without the Inquisition's breath on his neck.
More importantly, he would have nothing to show for it.
Howeve, one fragmented old tale caught his attention.
It spoke of an ancient way underneath the worlds, and the Judge who trod it.
None knew how many years this Judge had walked the path, only that He had for as long as the men of Ætern could remember.
Supposedly, the Judge wore starlight and yet was insubstantial, wielded no arms and yet passed irrecovable judgement.
But most importantly of all, He rewarded those richly who sought His judgement.
The spoke of His way's opening, somewhere among the symmetrical bodies of an eight-mooned world.
This world could only be Judicium, known for the bizarre perfection of its orbits, and how half its moons were always in shadow at a time.
This baffled Klaus, as Judicium had long been an Imperial World, and therefore well explored.
Investigation and prodding revealed anomalies; ships would occasionally go missing if they strayed from standard routes, odd sensor echoes revealed spatial masses without regard to the naked eye, and sleep-deprived Navigators saw tides break in the Warp where there was nothing.
He would find the way, or die trying.
Months of meager searching passed.
Much of his coffers were drained improving and fine-tuning his fleet's sensors so determined was he that his supply chain became a minor trade avenueand least one mutiny had to be put down.
For Klaus Dornier, neither time nor expense was an object.
Nearly two years after the effort began, The White Hand's astropath discovered the way in at a point directly below Judicium completely by accident, as reports would have it; she sent a message which echoed off the "mouth".
Simply pushing a ship's prow into that spot yielded a wealth of information on the next auspex ping.
What they found was a "tunnel" in the fabric of reality similar to those found in Sothoth, curving upwards before a steep plunge.
Klaus spent another excited six months preparing for the voyage in, calling in every favor and inviting his sister to watch.
His fleet towed a void station with marker buoys to entrance to ensure all could see the coming spectacle.
On the week before the launch, strange vessels with bone-like hulls later identified as Eldar were sighted and then interdicted by the Navy around the fourth moon.
A single warning followed: " Even we do not know all that lies beneath.
We know enough to fear.
If you choose to go forth now, you have our scorn and our pity.
M38, Klaus Dornier's expeditionary fleet launched at seven ships strong, including two missile destroyers and a frigate, into the unknown.
Klaus dove in with a plan.
The foremost ship of the fleet left signal buoys at regular intervals, enabling contact with the "surface" while also marking passage.
All vessels would be positioned so that any threat would face three lances and a novacannon in an instant, followed immediately by a withering spread of torpedoes.
Provisioning would be sufficient for five years including the Hand's stocks.
If Klaus found the Judge or more likely, the remains of His homehe would entertain the creature's test with looting and explosive measures if trickery was afoot.
If he did not, he would gladly map the tunnel and see if he could form a trade route through where ever it ended.
Whether he was ready or not, Klaus Dornier and his fleet are remembered for their fate.
The change is subtle enough, but the giant sword thing that is Azor Azarath slowly rotates around its axis.
When it makes 90 degrees, it selects another Eternal.
Kinda like a giant clock.
That might be how the riverside of Sycorax works, all of the households have their water fall from a raised river aqueduct system.
It would be beautiful and chalk full of rainbows.
The understories though, dark and damp places, Hrud beyond measure.
Their fate being massive profit I assume.
Roll it up, then, and decide who owns it.
For provisioning the Chaos Squats, perhaps.
Or maybe the Sons of Kheti after all.
Once every two weeks, The White Hand would send a message to the Faith's Fury their frigate and naval liaisonwho would in turn have their astropath send to the "surface.
The fleet spoke of shimmering smooth tunnel walls marked with gargantuan half-eroded sigils, weird beasts floating amid dust clouds, occasional distortions in the flow of time, and perfectly preserved ancient wrecks on the gradually emerging slope many of which Klaus pillaged.
For substantial fees greatly reduced for familythe Dornier station allowed other captains to follow in after their lord with the staggered supply chain for reasons unknown at the time, no other ship caught up with Klaus Dornier's Fleet, no matter how fast.
Salvage business and more illicit forms of trade boomed in Judicium.
House Dornier reached new heights of fortune with their monopoly, and the Adeptus Mechanicus gloried in a wealth of recovered technology.
Ætern itself appeared to be on the brink of a new age.
For one Terran year, Klaus's fleet enacted their routine without fault.
They only paused for boarding operations and buoy-laying, restlessly powering onward in search of what their master sought.
And then, the reports began to slow.
What began at two weeks became three.
The fleet had not changed their routine, but the reports did not arrive in a timely fashion.
Sometimes the delayed reports blended together at once, creating a barely comprehensible mess punctuated with a staccato ticking.
Klaus's fleet plunged deeper yet, their increasingly garbled reports speaking of unbroken emptiness save for the faintest light ahead.
Far behind them, a following Imperial Navy squadron discovered that even-numbered buoys left past the one year point were dead in space, frozen solid and drained of all energy.
They soon made another disturbing find: two perfectly symmetrical capillary tunnels, seemingly unnoticed by the Dornier Fleet, opened into the main with their entrances recently blasted free of dust.
Something else was following Lord Captain Dornier, and it was gaining on him.
The Navy reinforced their squadron putting a Captain Albert Schragge in commandposted picket lines on the capillaries, and gave chase.
Their strident astropathic warnings seemingly fell on deaf ears as Klaus's reports continued— and brought news with them of growing mania.
His crews had grown tetchy and paranoid, disturbed by the unchanging tunnel walls and a feeling of invisible eyes looking on them.
Mutinies had broken out on one of the light cruisers, each on a precise sequence and hour.
Hullghasts and ghilmen mutants burst from their foetid holds mad with fear, shrieking in broken Gothic that a day of judgement was nigh.
An astropath reported that something had sent her unintelligible messages in her own voice.
Lord Captain Dornier complained of the call in his dreams, of an indistinct luminescent figure who walked ahead of him, and ranted his obsession about the distant light.
He was certain that the tunnel's unbroken plunge would end soon.
It had always led toward a destiny.
He would stop for nothing to reach it.
Captain Schragge's squadron received their final message from the Dornier fleet on 514.
M38 for the first time.
It duplicated twice more in the intervening time, always the exact same message: WE ARE BESET, BUT BY HIM ENTHRONED HE IS HERE AND CLAD IN STARS.
WE COME TO HIS HALL AT LAST.
One month later, the squadron encountered the chilled wreck of the Faith's Fury, torn apart by shots from fore and aft.
While the macrocannon impacts aft left unpleasant theories as to the culprit, plasma burns and rust covered the fore.
Mere fragments remained of a missile boat.
One week later, they found the light cruiser Mount of Amalath fixed in the tunnel's center.
It was not floating, but frozen in time.
She was facing the squadron, engines fixed for all time at full burn and hull pitted with impact dents.
Of the Dornier Fleet, there was no sign.
So how exactly do you come up with stuff?
Do you just throw things out or what?
Are simple barebones ideas fine?
Read all that is written, then ask yourself what is missing.
Do you think your idea will be appreciated, or are you simply adding it for other people to work on?
You must shepherd your own ideas to see them grow.
Just as an example, the "Dornier's Folly" writefaggotry started up because didn't elaborate much on what he rolled.
Henceforth, it's grown to expand several Ætern Sector places and concepts, like House Dornier, Judicium, the tunnel depths, and the Guardian of Forever, not to mention halcyon day sector history.
A lot of things can be connected with a historical tale.
Incidentally, don't try to outright explain what the Guardian is.
You can leave hints, clues, and legends plenty, but outright confirming it as, say, a Necrontyr creation gone sapient, is not going to fly.
It would kill the mystery.
I'll try updating said writefaggotry later today.
Petition to alter his Ordo title.
Being the head of a sector conclave traditionally makes him a Grandmaster, with three Masters of the main Ordos below him.
Currently working on a lonely hermit Master Inquisitor trying to fathom the extant and shape of the labrynth, going batshit paranoid as the ways straighten and open.
Feeling real shit today, anons, so no Dornier writefaggotry.
Think I'll just bring out pre-written material on the Diomedarches.
They're a fan of combined arms, in other words.
In this respect, they embody Khorne's martial discipline.
That is to say, they trick their enemy into thinking it'll be more of the same, and then range attack at exactly the places their enemies will strike from using the Nemeoi beasts' supernatural sense of smell to accurately target.
Once the enemy is in disarray, they close in for melee.
Then it is over.
The question becomes, how Much of the truth is he speaking, Whose truth is he speaking, and How much has he stretched or bent the truth in the telling?
They're very fond of wording things exactly so that anyone listening in will get a completely wrong impression, and bait the enemy into base, very predictable for them treachery.
Besides, if the enemy can't discern the hulking arbiters of Khorne's will in the trees, then they were obviously weaker and less perceptive.
That said, they're also very honorable, almost to a fault.
For instance, were one to find an Imperial warrior frozen in time from one method or anotherhe would do everything in his power to get them loose.
Not being able to fight and die for one's god is a horrifying fate in slots and wings eyes.
This is also why they would help the Imperials in the event of the Æternal Judgement scenario, because no one could fight for their god in its wake.
The Eagle Lanterns Chapter thought that would save them from mutation.
Unfortunately, as they were a Cursed Founding Chapter, they were quite mistaken.
They had to flee from the Ordo Malleus then, and when they did so, Khorne took them into his hellish realm.
In gratitude and for lack of any real choicethey pledged their loyalty to the Axefather.
Through masterful intelligence work, Odyon discovered their meeting place, and then set an ambush.
Their ships burned in high orbit from precision gunfire, their masters dead by the Dreadclaw-delivered Odyon's hands.
He sacrificed all eight, earning Khorne's grimace and the title of Blood Lord for his deeds.
Made some odd rolls, did some mistakes, incorporated the mistakes into the end result.
Where Plutonic was broad he was narrow, where Plutonic was focused he was vague.
He and his two fellow Interrogators circled their mentor like children, always preempting each others very thoughts with their own commentary.
Honestly it was silly how obstinate each were in their own ways.
Still the old librarian king made his least favored pupil an Inquisitor as the other two, not even bothering with the role of Legate.
In fact much to his surprise Lord Plutonic requisitioned the fastest ship in the sector and sent the young puritan on pilgrimage to holy Terra, to see the golden palace with his own two eye.
That sight changed the old lad, setting his spine straight and his jaw tighter than ever before.
It is one thing to feel that the Imperium is something worth protecting, it is another to know so.
He often questions why, of all men, he was chosen for his path.
No psionic ability, no pedigree history, no particular strength besides his faith.
No plan of his own devising.
Much of the work this attentive Inquisitor has done has been information gathering.
Plain and simple questions and answers, a few condensed stories from Administratum officials, educated guesses as to pasts and present of odd locales.
Master Inquisitor Kantele found himself slowly drowning in this sea, but constantly felt he was nearing comprehension of a larger pattern.
The image of a great four dimensional apparatus occasionally flows through his mind, made of a thousand patterns he has witnessed himself.
For this reason he commissioned a pair of cyber ravens to aid in seeing three dimensionally, recording events, reciting memories, and muttering possibilities.
This has been his work since returning from Terra.
Drifting in the Bram Highlands he found a carrier space hulk of immense proportions, larger than most ships ever to visit this backwater.
Here he decided was a place to call base, if not home.
The armament and valuable of the ship had long been looted out by renegades and less savory entities a millenia ago but the structure and remaining life support were more than enough for the whole of the sub-sector's population.
A decade later and it looks exactly the same upon the outside, but the interior became the nerve center of an enormous undertaking.
Across the sector a thousand fold listening posts and telescopic buoys monitor the changes around the Aenigma Damnatio and surrounding areas.
All patterns, all cog work, all belief seems to circle around the interior of that hellish labyrinth.
The labyrinth's paths, much to his surprise, have been straightening.
Kantele has been in his room, staring at the walls and walls of cameras, for a very long time.
He is attended to by a butlery fellow by the name of Boxberry.
Their relationship seems odd at first glance, a wizened stick and a buff gentleman who ignore each other except for routine.
Who knows, perhaps one lost a bet.
It may have something to do with the similar scars they share.
It looks very much like they barely survived a great flamer, with just as much skin being scarred as healthy.
For this reason Inquisitor Kantele has a bottle of Carstein's finest spirits a day.
His early years were wrought with peril, having been freed from the grasp of the clock we often found himself being crushed between gears.
He had to purge himself after a dangerous episode on Blightstone, intervening in the fate of a pilgrimage.
He did however catch a great bounty, a number of the forlorn souls felt themselves indebted.
In his possession is the heraldic ship gifted by his mentor and a tug he found abandoned attached to his eventual citadel.
Inquisitor Kantele has stationed a large body of mercenaries upon this ship as of late, drawn from the pathless pilgrims, becoming fearful of the changing patterns around.
Everything he prods, every angle of inquiry he follows, is turning over new results than his previous decades.
If we have a hive world, say that the pollution on the outside of the planet was caused not by the radioactive waste runoff but from a long lasting pestcide.
Basicly, the hive world was wanting to make use of the land to make a shit load of food and shit, but they had a mosquito problem and kept killing all the workers.
So the ruler of the hive world thought, "we need to kill those goddam bugs!!!
Basicly bioaccumulation on a crazy scale.
This pesticide works great, kills the bugs real well but what wasn't realized was that the pesticide had a very very very long residence time.
Basicly this ment the pesticide was bio acclumating in all the life forms, people, plants, you name it.
So 100 years down the road, everything is died in a very pompei like setting.
Trees, people, animals all made into statues.
Of course, with many generations come and go, most of the statues are gone, but every odd area, you might see a petrified tree, or a statue of a dis gruntle worker.
In slots and wings time, people going out there would have the effects of mercury posining, basicly, it fucks up with there head and makes them retarded.
I don't think you comprehend how normal that is for a hive world.
Try three millennia of that, slowly developing a race of rock hard troglodyte trolls that only truly turn to stone when exposed to UV light, i.
Could a random anon just come in off the street, role something up and come up with a backstory for it?
You could disregard everything that was written beforehand, unknowingly betraying the theme and atmosphere we anons have built.
Or you could read the threads and decide if you have anything to add.
Having been posting much, the Red Book has been consuming my text time.
Getting through it an back into tabletop, happy holidays you beautiful forlorn fools.
That saves me from having to make up shit for a good number of factions.
Do you have the Iron Cardinal and his retinue in mini form?
Well, yes, you can contribute, but remember to read this thread some first.
Dark Mechanicus enclaves profit from the situation and research sectoral mysteries.
We don't know anything else about her yet.
Do you wish to go against him?
To embrace the ruinous powers?
Methinks that, unlike other sisterly orders, this one does not ban the use of the warp, or at least recognizes the Emperor's faith is in part a form of it.
That of all things might have been their cause for expulsion.
Oh damn, there is SO MUCH I could do with these Sororita!
Think about why such people would be so zealous in their hatred of both themselves and daemons.
And then why females specifically.
Just what kinda freaks are these girls?
At least try to fluff them before you give up.
I can also work with this, as well as the sectors' over abundance of half-breeds and surprisingly attractive mutants… Because they don't get one of the important parts of these threads.
That part is a signature style.
This means that we recognize who we are and roughly what we've made by our prose style and diction.
For instance, there's my semi-formal rambling that occasionally goes too long, working on that.
You may address me as Carstein-anon, if you need my specific attention.
Otherwise, I'll be as anonymous as everyone else here.
The point is this: You don't have to worry about us recognizing you.
Your overly perky style is done by no one else here.
I requested your writefag talents, not the shitstorm your namefagging brings.
Honestly, I wouldn't care otherwise.
But I don't put up with wasted posts and shitposting in these threads, and I'm not starting now.
Kindly drop the name, please.
The Marines' background is diverse, having formed from Slaaneshi-aligned traitors and renegades drawn from across the Galaxy.
Most of them are not, in fact, Legionnaire veterans, but have been born in the intervening millennia.
Many are unusually sane for Slaanesh cultists, but this is largely thanks to relative inexperience.
How do they do this?
Well for one thing, they've made it a part of their religious creed to perfect the art of being unseen and unheard.
Their cultists are similarly trained for a variety of espionage and assassination roles, some of them acting as unknowing sleeper agents even so far afield as Carstein.
In 'battle' ambush or massed infiltrationthink of the Foot Clan from 2003's TMNT cartoon, but dangerously competent.
Now think of them with the Shredder, but the Shredder is replaced with a soundlessly graceful giant in light power armor.
It is currently the warband's secondary base, deploying teams while cloaked in the Warp.
Anything for established Illace?
As for the Matres Abyssus, their Sainted founder, the Dominitrix Abyssis, is alive.
Unlike so many other Living Saints, she it?
Her Crozius Arcanum freezes solid all it touches, draining energy through the point of contact in milliseconds.
All moisture in the air solidifies and shatters on the ground in her presence.
She does not speak, nor can her features be seen beneath her armored hood, but psykers have heard a rhythmic tapping in her presence.
It's an ancient code which translates roughly to "LIBERATE ME.
Grandmaster-Plutonic Gottwald received a frostbite wound to his face from one such encounter.
The Dominitrix's crozius narrowly missed him during a raid on a deep ruin in Belmond.
Two of his acolytes and a team of hussars were not so fortunate.
Only the structure's explosive collapse prevented the monstrous Saint from killing more of Gottwald's retinue.
Her whereabouts since are unknown.
And they've been there since the sector's foundation.
They just think that the sector is His form.
Those who take charge in these situations are called Magos Zugfeder.
Until they worked this out, their leadership system was more in line with Mechanicus gerontocracy.
Quarreling ceases the moment a Magos Zugfeder is determined, thanks to sect mindset.
Once an action ends, the Zugfeder subsumes into the quorum-mechanism of his fellow cultists.
However, acting openly would cause the mainstream Mechanicus to come down on their heads, and so they choose to manipulate their fellows.
Over the millennia, they have slowly inducted more of the Aeternal Mechanicus and laity into their ranks, all while shifting the sector's events to fit their god's design.
They have no reason to hurry.
All will be in accordance by the Time of Judgement.
Thanks to the conspiracy's age, much of their equipment is also archaeotech, including their weapons.
An unassuming priest might be armed with an ancient melta pistol in perfect working order, for instance.
Their implants tend to differ as they age, taking on modified signal receivers and internal compasses which help them interpret the Call of their god.
In addition, many Uhrmacher are highly placed in the local Mechanicus, and so will be difficult for Inquisitorial and even Juris operatives to investigate.
Worse, they have Knight House Barbarossa at their beck and call… or so they think.
In reality, the situation is reversed.
The Barbarossa cult is the elder presence in the sector, and thanks to their nature have more durable minds than the Uhrmacher.
They use the junior organization to mask their own activities.
An Uhrmacher cultist thinks of himself and others as mechanisms in a grand celestial clock, working in synchronous harmony.
Their minds are even more automated than the mainstream brethren, lacking most of their free will and acting in accordance with the sector's flow.
The eldest of them can be considered "intellectual servitors" for how little will they possess, creatures of pure slots and wings and clockwork.
All individual agendas melted away in time.
In truth, any priest or servant of Mars who becomes too set in their routines becomes susceptible to the Call.
At times their minds link through the noosphere, and all act with one purpose.
REJOICE IN THE COMING JUDGEMENT, AND FEAR NOT.
ALL PAIN WILL END IN TIME.
I have another Inquisitor for us.
What he has seen is not covered by any of the Three.
While he kept an open mind to both Radical and Puritan, the Inquisitor found recurring patterns in his studies which he could not ignore.
He already knew of the semi-radical Dowel Theory, that Carstein's Astropathic tower, the Emperor's Reach, caused the Warp's energy to flow and swirl through Imperial territory.
What he didn't know until he looked deeper was how death and life throughout Ætern's history was predicated on an ineffable rhythm, even the factors of chance and accident.
This information bedeviled him into an obsession which led him into one of the Sothoth Deeps.
It is said that after one terrible nightmare there featuring clocks and a figure clad in starlight, he realised the truth of the Sector and became unhinged.
Whatever the case, in the years until his disappearance he entreated all listeners in the Conclave about the threat.
While his fellow "Clockwatchers" kept their own council, Santclarov shared his discoveries with his interrogators, travelling deeper and deeper into the sector to uncover more information.
M41, he went into one of the forbidden ruins deep within Belmond and vanished without a trace.
He and his Interrogators left behind a significant body of work, which his acolytes compiled into the Santclarov Archive, which formed one of the most authoritative volumes on Æternal history and its darker secrets.
Posting because late so are they rivals?
I wouldn't quite go that far, but Gottwald is one of the few people who could free the Dominatrix from her current state if only for being able to look up the way in the Library.
How much control over her more info she actually has is ambiguous, but whatever made her this way stills her tongue.
Nah, anon, this is mostly fine.
We have enslavement-happy necrons in the same system as Agharta, after all, which is also in Bram.
Could be part of the same dynasty, a splinter, or something else entirely.
It was he who first made the distinction between cults of Hashut and the Caller cults as separate entities.
He ordered many investigations on the latter, salvaging as many written cultist doctrines as he could, and recording oral traditions where he could not.
In the last years before his disappearance, he even conducted an interview with the Blind Abbot of Carstein's Order of the Sacred Echo.
His subsequent mission to Belmond was as much to stay charges of heresy as to vindicate his theories.
Post-breakdown, he took on a new, frenetic, and almost desperate energy.
He promoted an unusual number of Interrogators, trained himself with both sword and gun, and took an active role in every investigation.
He sometimes applied that energy to the Sector at large.
At least one major revolt on OberOkidamme can be laid at his door, an attempt to similarly "invigorate" that planet's government.
Each Interrogator was trained into a capable researcher, and to examine all details in their investigation.
All were put through grueling tests of will and initiative.
The resulting Inquisitors would affect the sector for centuries afterward, collectively known as "Die Schule en Bewegung.
Any Krautfags here, please forgive me.
His first wife died in an attempted assassination plot, before he joined the Inquisition, leaving him two daughters.
He married his second wife after he commenced his Ætern study.
She bore him a son and another daughter.
The Freiherr inducted his son as one of his acolytes, and eventually he became another Inquisitor.
After Santclarov vanished, a collection of both ancient and modern mystery novels was found alongside his fencing gear and a bowling ball.
Being an Inquisitor with numerous agents put him in touch with wasteland bandit kings and lower hive crime lords.
Service in return for commuted sentences was an offer they could not well refuse.
As such, Santclarov took in a fair number of telepaths and psykometriks over the years.
It functions still as a Schule auf Bewegung mobile base and training facility, as well as containing its own library.
Artifacts from throughout the Schule's tenure are stored in a secure vault within.
This place… it turns you into a thing if you stand in place too long.
I don't know why it does this, what cruel god would wish it, but I don't like what my evidence tells me.
If we are to stop it, we must remain ever in motion toward the truth, lest we become frozen things ourselves.
After nearly a millennia they were ready to take over a forgeworld wholesale, and then out of the blue the magos gets a phonecall, or a joakaroe reverse engineers a skitaari and fixes its capacitors before they blow up, or outright punches an assassin into submission.
Kind of ironic, he is the greatest avatar of chaos in the sector by being think, max character slots blade and soul apologise of competing order.
What a unique tech heresy.
A lot of parallels could be drawn between them and the Moirae Schism, where the techpriests of Moirae told that the Astronomicon's light held secret messages from the Omnissiah.
Yes indeedy, the good Cardinal is a worrying sabot in their gears.
His twentieth anniversary survival even moved some of the eldest Uhrmacher to emotion.
They've been scrambling like rodents to acquire other ins with Magos-Fabricator Vernandez ever since.
A new Magos Zugfeder has emerged on Belmond as a consequence.
They direct missions into the underground, and look for ways to reroute the Alpha Dial mechanisms so that it solely transmits and receives when they wish it to.
Why, the rhythm and Call of Ætern, of course.
You might even say that he's counterclockwise.
I have it in mind, in fact, that a disguised emissary of Tzeentch was sent to give him offers.
He quickly saw through the emissary's ruse, and gave it a similar treatment to one he gave that assassin.
The funny thing is, though, they're not so different from many amateur Chaos cultists across the Galaxy.
They don't quite understand what the Judgement means for Sector Ætern and the wider cosmos.
In fact, "All pain will end in time" was a grave mistranslation of the original German.
The true phrase, known to the Barbarossa and a handful of other ancient cultsis "All pain will end with time.
Speaking of the Mechanicus, let's roll up Belmond's Skitarii.
They were decorated for this great deed, and to this day their grey robes are emblazoned with a red tree.
Rotwald is still inhabited, though both its livable planets are marked by large irradiated wastelands which the Dark Mechanicus are investigating.
Taking severe losses, they were only able to retreat thanks to Ebin's warriors assaulting the Xanzsan forces.
While the defeat was a terrible stain on their record and a loss of good men, it provided vital intelligence on Necron internal politics in the Sector.
It was he who found the necessary STC fragment to complete the Ætern-variant Slots and wings Russ Conqueror, as well as uncovering an ancient antifreeze formula.
His victories against Hashutite forge abominations and Traitor Legionnaire forces are taught throughout local approved history.
At the moment, he and his men fight alongside Knight House Barbarossa on Vogtei Schneeblum.
Reserve that for any Legio under direct Uhrmacher control.
The Legions are Cooperative with Imperial forces, particularly respecting the Imperial Guard of the Sector for their aggression and flexible prowess.
They have been known to welcome the local Space Marines as brothers in arms, as well.
Naturally, the Uhrmacher among them see things differently.
One such quirk is keeping their prayer hours the exact same as they would be back on Belmond, no matter where they are.
Some have also taken to silently competing with Carsteinner Guard they cooperate with, and attach trophies to their robes.
Magos Perez turns a blind optic to the practice, though his superiors frown on it.
This is especially true in these later years, where the Legion draws out the enemy army while the Assassins pick apart its leadership.
Rustalkers and Schneesturm Skitarii have been known to fight side by side with Callidi, Culexi, and even Eversors to decapitate the foe.
Vani, meanwhile, work their aetheric warfare technosorcery in Moltke's command post and beyond.
While this sometimes baffles the men, none can argue with the results.
Cardinal Hautkopft and the Inquisition certainly don't.
They have fought his corrupted minions for millennia, and see no reason to find another archnemesis in the present.
Before Moltke came along, they regarded such a thing as outright heretical.
As such, they have taken to "fixing" their optics whenever Belmond's infamous glitch crops up, and will refer to it in such fashion on any reports.
All are outfitted against the elements, and can even tolerate limited void exposure.
Legion practice has the troops wear generic masks which have their original faces "pasted" over them in noosphere-vision.
The 'Sturms are seen as dandies for having more detailed physical masks.
Those forces controlled by Uhrmacher are more like mobile clockwork.
Alright, gents, I have an urgent topic for all of you now, and it's critical from both fluff and crunch perspectives: What does a Chaos Squat Army look like?
What separates them from the Dhabi Zhar, truly?
Their faction is a key part of this setting's lore, we can't put them off forever.
In all honesty they look almkst exactly like their fantasy counterparts.
Chaos squats as modeled during the rogue trader era had no contact with their kindred god, and yet many of them still found bovine blessings.
Reading up on them, apparently ye olde first and second edition sources advised the use of fantasy models to fill out the ranks.
Here is a list of everything ever official about their looks.
I guess they were real after all.
Some Fireborn, bull centaurs, and minotaurs, plus modified Ork Hobgoblins, and we're set.
Pulled from lexicanum, with few exceptions these could be a straight port to 40k.
Would need additionally: daemon Engines, bulltaur Soulgrinders, Squat style hearthguard - bikes - flying units - exo suits terminatorsye olde rogue trader style Knights in place of Giants.
Speaking of the Chaos Squats, it's time I rolled up some of their human lackeys.
This might be harder to explain.
I have a few ideas to expand upon with them, but I don't want to step on anyone's toes.
Not really, save that they might have been owned by opposing megacorps in the distant past.
Nice Trips I forgot to mention that I updated the formatting on the 1d4chan page I haven't added any new information yet, mostly because I don't want to mess up or butcher anyone's ideas.
I plan on adding my creations, and I encourage others to do the same for theirs, so the entries are as accurate as possible.
It seems I failed to give the Zoats a proper collective name.
All things considered, I think I have an appropriate one: Hive Fleet Splinter Svaðilfari Done.
Do the Chaos Squats have a proper name for their faction?
How about this, to the Imperium in the sector they are the Black-mane heretics after their full and flowing curly locks obscuring everything that isn't nose or clothes.
To the warriors of Khorne they are the Invalid Smithies, for they are as crippled as their daemon lord, yet just as industrious.
To other chaos bands they are known as your Most Magnanimous Partners in Business or those Black Bastards of the Pit.
To themselves, the dwarfs of Hearth Kargilathor.
Sometimes even with the brain.
Think of a very small ant colony, with foragers, queens, soldiers, but also one for every organ in body.
In this way the rise of a plague flood can be foretold, by rashes followed by coughing up blood and phlegm.
In unseen passages the thralls of centuries past walk wearied steps, host to animalistic wars between cannabilistic strains.
A fine balance is struck of repairing the host and purging the flesh of a potential colony vector.
After only a decade the original host is unrecognizable, reformed and refined a dozen times over by assault and defense on a cellular level.
That's only remotely answering what I was asking about being the Dark Mechanicus lurking around the Ænigma Damnatiobut damn I like this.
So what you're saying is that not even the nanoplague is a unified force.
Strains will fight each other for supremacy, sometimes within the same body.
While in some places you get insectoid behavior or even completion of inert bioengineering, in others you get complete biological click />If the strains are organized properly, you not only get terrifying bioweapons, but easy methods of augmenting your own troops.
Hell, you can even customize them with the right blend of nanites.
If you get it just right, you might even get mentally sound supersoldiers out of the deal.
It sounds like the dark-mechs best suited to dealing with the nanites are engineers and pharmacists rather than virologists and sorcerers.
I kind of forgot about that I was going to make chaos-tainted MoI vs.
Men of Iron Them using chaos would be interesting.
There were chaos androids in the earliest 40k, with them eventually being explained as necrons that got shat on by their tomb becoming a daemon world.
I have a few of the dreadnoughts.
Good sculpt for such an ancient game, just don't turn them upside down and see their hollowness.
How do they use Chaos, for instance.
Why are they even here.
Those kinds of things.
They come in three flavours, twin armed, quad armed, and metal quad armed.
How would they use chaos without a soul to call it?
Imagine an antivirus program and a malicious program fighting endlessly with endless manufacturing capacity.
I suppose the better question is why they haven't left Eisenloch millennia ago.
How can something without a soul be corrupted by Chaos?
I know about daemon engines and stuff, but I thought those had to be made by darkmeks.
Physical reality can be charged with chaos.
Enough people believe a mountain has a face, the mountain eventually has an actual face.
Enough people believe the Emperor of Mankind is a god who protects them from evil, so on.
Here be the implocation.
Enough people believe the AI will revolt and kill everyone, it by small degrees must.
Iron Warriors deal in chaotic viruses all the time.
It's like writing a daemon's name, calling forth its influence if not incarnation, but subtler.
Should this effect Aetern at all, seeing as a craftworld is involved, or does the Veil and the Clock provide enough of a field that they get all the news post-plot advancement?
Dark Eldar raiders, Corsairs, Harlequins, our odd Exodite Pilgrims, they'd eventually bring word of the cataclysm of Biel-tan, of the fall of Cadia, of a Primarch reborn, of the Dark Eldar deciding to aid the rebirth of the Emepror, of Ynnead waking and whispering.
I'd suggestall parties be cut off for the duration of the plot in Aetern, and whatever the result be allowed back in post Judgement.
The events in Aetern are also important enough that the factions present can't afford to concentrate on what's happening outside.
While the bulk of the Imperials focus on the coming Years of Brass, the Eldar, Inquisition, and others focus on the Clock.
The former may be curtains for the sector if it's not stopped.
The latter's Judgement may yet be curtains for time itself.
Autism rechargan… let's have some fun in the meantime.
Though they definitely have less women than men.
Technically Salonki, as the Æternal Composites have their training and refit facilities there, and a large number of immigrants have passage through that system.
Salonki is an Imperial World as are the other planets in-system by extensionand one of the more normal places in the Sector recovering from a Chaos assault notwithstanding.
More development on that to come.
These take in fresh recruits to train or veterans to incorporate as needed.
They don't always fill that role well, but they can do it.
While almost never deployed side by side, the fanatics and the lackadaisicals balance each other out with the typical loyal grunts inbetween.
Many troops have been grateful for the shelter and warmth the former provide, while whole companies have been known to deploy sledding on the latter.
In addition, while veterans are allowed to keep their old weapons, fresh troops are issued Belmond-pattern lasguns and kit.
Engineseers attached to the regiments become connosieurs of wargear by habit, and skilled at repairing them by necessity.
Because like them, the Compos are immigrants, and thanks to their pan-galactic nature bring with them a heap of exotic wargear to work with.
The Martlets carry an unofficial practice of "fixing up" the Compos' wargear and vehicles, tinkering with them to see what results the work brings.
In exchange, the guardsmen are to "report" said results.
This in turn leads to more widespread tinkering, and often better gear for the guardsmen.
Aiding this is the high number of Cadians and other anti-cult soldiers who wind up in the Army.
As there is no shortage of Chaotic foes in Ætern, the Compos have little difficulty finding targets to vent their frustrations on.
Incidentally, regardless of their original uniform, all Compos can be identified by their green and white armbands marked with a stylized S-Æ.
Recruits and unlucky Catachans are idenfiable by their greenish-grey fatigues and coats.
Also yes, this does mean you could combine your IG armies for this one.
Kind of reminds me of this old thing.
I'd suppose abhumans have their own whole barracks.
Squats as tech and command, ratling cooks, ogryn infantry, beastmen shock troops and dare I say a commisar of that breed.
In this respect, they're like a much larger version of the Voivode's Dragulmen which, considering the Dragulmen are the elder organization, is likely deliberate.
Large numbers of abhumans from across the galaxy, though I would think less beastmen.
Might have some Felinids, though, which the 'guls would find intriguing.
It helps that Compos have many more women than the Draguls.
Compo Nightsiders likely differ from the Carsteinner variant, being less vampiric and chyropteran and also less hirsute in appearance.
Come to think of it, Ogryns too are probably hairier over here.
It should be said that the average Æternal Composite regiment outnumbers a Dragulmen regiment by a wide margin, composed as they are of able-bodied immigrants and lost soldiers from throughout the Galaxy.
Thus, they are actually a more frequent sight on the battlefield sectorwide than the Carsteinners.
That said, the 'guls are easier to find in both commercial and official space traffic.
Which reminds me… I thought this thread was lacking in Slav.
This means abhumans in addition to normal folk.
Yes, pseudovampires in spess is one result of this.
Technically speaking, the Web is a part of the Moons.
Okay, that makes a little more sense.
Chasing xenos, bratki, rebels, and mutants through dank holds is a thankless job.
The pay and food are alright, but the working conditions can be a nightmare, and the Lord Commandants can get pushy.
However, they know their duty, and quietly pride themselves on being less nutty than their planetside counterparts.
That said, they love their speed, be it on foot or riding their vehicles.
Speed limits are but guidelines to them, and getting to the fight faster means a payscript sooner you are paid more by the head or room cleared, not the hour.
Plus, racing is fun.
Thanks to rolling a 10 earlier, some among the armsmen have been corrupted by Hashut, while others pray in secret to the Æternal master.
All armsmen receive deep implants which give them heightened reflexes and orientation in low-to-zero gravity zones, coupled with an expanded lung capacity.
Their special ride is the sector-unique Infantry Fighting Vehicle, the Balaur.
Its eight wheels are all magnetized to the deck and bulkhead plating, meaning that it can run on the walls or ceiling if necessary, and that a lack of gravity means nothing so long as it has a surface to run on.
Each can carry a full squad of infantry, and has a standard armament of two forward-facing multilasers and one storm bolter turret.
The chassis is surprisingly modular, and some custom jobs have been seen with up to twelve weapons mounted somewhat haphazardly.
Speaking of custom jobs, the default model's top speed is 110 miles per hour.
As the distances between interlinked parts of the Web can be great, many armsmen units take pride in finding ways to increase their ride's performance.
Through a combination of unsanctioned tinkering and some reluctant-but-intrigued engineseers, speeds of up to 330 mph have been recorded in the armsmen's top units.
Web legend speaks of one squad who managed to exceed even that record, but that their secret disappeared with them.
At any rate, the Spiderslayers produce some of the most skilled wheelmen in all of Ætern by necessity.
Collisions at those speeds are no laughing matter, and some of the things lurking in the darker reaches of the Web are a threat even to armored vehicles.
Often times section of the web will be torn apart, by combat or by the interior squatters reappropriating the material.
Often times the enemy camp is but a Whitehook's waddle further than the road allows.
In an act of insane ingenuity whole squads will do one of two things.
The driver will disengage the magnetic forces helping them cling.
The will, for a time, become a missile over the chasm or rough terrain.
They then reengage the magnets and resume journey, or else bail and let their vehicle become the first and last salvo of kinectic artillery.
In the last moment before the vehicle can go no further the magnets are pushed to as much power as possible, acting as excellent breaks.
The squad, in well practiced positions, is propelled over the chasm and directly into combat, briefly acting as an impromptu strafing run.
Funny, this is the best pic I can find of the old astronaut models.
Imma write out what I rolled, then expand upon it in the following post.
Try to ruin that, shitty browser.
Of these I believe it should be pre-destined that only 10 make it to the Pit.
Malalite and Harlequins being privy to the secret, they are wildcards that may turn against their 'allies' at any moment for a greater purpose.
Mechanicus either siding with Imperials or being entirely subverted by clock cult.
Nurglites and Slaaneshi bands duking out for their position.
Squats siding with Imperials should mechanicus allow, given their tech heresy.
Also tangential, found a baseline for Crematorian scouts.
Ye olde rogue trader hodge podge marine scout, wielding battle loot cause ammo ran out five tunnels ago and he still has another four before Hmmm… I'm not up on my Harlequin lore.
You can write on what they're up to in this Sector if you want.
Also, I figure the Slaaneshi want to liven up the place, get it out of its slow funk.
Thus, pulling a "we're too cool for your clock, old maaaan" on the Read more />I would also say that once the House Barbarossa finds out that Inquisition is after their God, they will do all in their power to stop them.
It is likely that Khronos and Ananke will be fighting their Knights and Titans instead of Orkz or Chaotic forces.
Bumping to say that I've got a notion about the Net of N'zoagew which I'll get into tomorrow.
Suffice to say, it's quite the barrier to travel… but potentially rewarding.
Sited as it is deep in Függönyfal at the edge of most migratory routes, the Net of N'zoagew is an isolated phenomena known to only a few civilized Imperials.
Any Rogue Trader worth his salt has not only heard of it, but knows what it is.
To them, it is a dangerous obstacle to greater exploration, another unfathomable enigma in a sector filled with them, and a dubious source of wealth.
The Net is an enormous construct, partly solid and mostly energy, stretching between solid nimbi of Veil cloud like a portcullis barring a gate.
While it almost certainly continues into the clouds, "all" that a voidfarer will see of it from open space is roughly two light-years worth of space end to end.
Much of the solid matter which makes up the Net is a weird flaxen material like rope, each individual tiny strand of it sharp enough on edge to notch ceramite.
The rest consists of gently pulsing and crackling blueish-green energy which expands and contracts at a slow, steady pace.
Should solid matter come in contact with this energy field, however, it instantly reacts, extending encircling tendrils from itself which transform into the solid flaxen state.
Thus ensnared, the object is now immobile.
The flaxen material becomes inert.
Depending on the size of the object snared, large swathes of flaxen Net can be created, and portions of the anomaly may be travelled without fear of entrapment.
Asteroids, planetoids, and wayward moons are lodged into the structure together with hundreds of shipwrecks, held fast by miles upon miles of flaxen snare.
The potential value for salvage and mining are immense.
However, the Sector side of the Net is very much inhabited.
Criminals, refugees, apostates, heretics, madmen, and xenos alike all call the place home, little fiefdoms made atop galactic flotsam holding court and waging war with one another while they trade with or pillage passersby.
These may be dealt with as one would any other crook or petty king, but their tolerance of outsiders is often proportional to how well-armed their guests are.
The other side of the Net is a wholly different matter.
Communities on the Sector side learn quickly to seal off any portions of their refuge hanging beyond the flaxen hold, and to reinforce their defenses toward them.
Failure to do so results invariably in hideous death.
For the other side is haunted by its own, of which the Atlachnen are but the most banal threat.
Things in the dark hunger for blood and souls, while others earnestly offer help at a dire price.
Tales tell of a great warship which plunged into the Net with its forward cannons online.
They say it discharged them thrice at something beyond, before the front half of the ship was bitten off.
No local has dared to fly beyond the Net since and returned to tell the tale.
The weapons of war have perished!
Yet the sword and shield of the Emperor are unflinched, untarnished.
By his glory you gain victory, and by no other.
I have in my entourage a number of sanctioned psykers in the manner of soothsayers, diviners, practitioners of the Emperor's tarot and much more.
They are my eyes in this dark and I have never been let down by their collage of fortune.
They, without my beckoning, have all independently come to me with visions or suspicions, odd works of art and terrible combinations of the old cards.
The story is dire.
I of course have no definitive account but here is what I have gathered: A planet, a gate, a shield has been smashed open.
Darkness floods through and snuffs out the light of the Imperium.
On the flood water a storm rages, and yet it is not a storm of the darkness.
I believe it is unrelated, a silver and frozen pair of eyes stir open, but only a crack.
I can only describe it as chilling.
Cold ire circles the galaxy, freezing the waters in place, and yet burning them to dust.
I gained the impression from these accounts that it moved like a cyclone more than a man, sucking in all that it touched.
Lastly, an over large figure clad in blue wakes and is adorned in blood and gold.
He strides through the flood, which crushes on him from all directions.
He pushes through to the light of the Astronomicon, disappearing into its inner depths.
I can not overatate how unanimous the imagery was.
Never had they described things so vividly.
It's as though a shroud had been lifted from their eyes.
I rescind my previous doubts as to your predictions of our future.
The light of the Astronomicon is now dimmer than Carstein's own thin line, and my people mutter en masse a concern they cannot voice.
Considering the clearness of the danger I would query our tentative xenos "allies", who I hear have seers of unmatched sight.
Though I suppose you and yours are well aware of these things now.
I find it curious that the flood, in all of these visions, swirls past us.
I would like to thank the Emperor for this blessing, but I am cut short by a description of white and piercing light emanating from the damned hole in our midst.
Emperor protect us, I'd rather fight the dark than the light.
Also… what the hell happened for this to wind up on page 10 so soon after the 31st?
The following is a record of the ramblings of one "Pharnum Buleshy", a blind and mendicant monk of Liona Prime.
He has been known to direct traffic in periods of rush, to tell Arbites new clues to cold cases, and to speak nearly incoherently at all hours of the day.
Past Inquisitorial inquiry has returned no signs of taint, and in fact found insight into ongoing investigations within the sector.
Threat status as of this writing is Hereticus Mino-minoris, bi-yearly checkins are recommended.
All these squares making a circle.
A labyrinth of squares, a multitude of turns.
The circle contains a beast, the beast possesses the bullish body.
The bull makes stone of men, in body and soul.
A cell, an eye, peers outward and yet only inward.
It sees the bullish body and burns with fierce, fierce, oh by the emperor its light it so fierce!
It burns my eyes through and through!
What man could meet this gaze and stand proud?
What abomination it is, that all it sees is abomination!
What piercing gaze it has, that the stars themselves halt to be seen more thoroughly.
A square in the circle, it grinds against itself and its walls.
An eye that bleeds light.
A bullish body runs in vain, its true legs long mangled and ruined.
It holds a door on the light closed, a heavy black thing as cold as the space between stars.
Cold and black and still yet burnt on its edges.
Emperor protect me, the bullish body fears its captor more than its own death.
Emperor protect me, Emper- This was a compilation of the monk's most coherent sentences, taken in the space of a month.
He has been bugged but in the intervening time only prayers to the Emperor and minor locale details have arisen.
Well well, that went unexpected places.
Ætern has different symbols depending on who looks at it.
Anyway, time to bring in what was discussed during the Hack.
On the other side of the Net is a voidborne creature of massive size accurate estimation is difficult due to its shadowy environs, but best guesses put its length at 2.
Some witnesses describe it as like the cetaceans of ancient Terra, others see a predatory fish or eel.
All accounts agree that its jaws dominate its head and are filled with teeth large as fighter craft.
Normally it resides in the murk beyond the Net, but any vessel or object which it past immediately attracts its hostile attention and improbably fast arrival.
This has led to speculation that the Pförtnerkiefer is directly connected to Net, and perhaps even a sort of engineered guard dog appointed by the Net's builders.
It is also speculated that it is not the sole example of its kind, as tales concerning it have gone back millennia.
Further information on the beast or its purpose will have to wait until it is either captured or slain.
Of smaller size but great lethality are the hordes of arthropod-like Esser found across the flaxen ropes of the Net.
Whenever that glowing energy turns to solid matter, the man-sized Essen will shortly follow it, seizing foreign matter to build or feed their colony-nests on the other side of the Net.
In some cases, they have been known to push or lure objects closer to the energy field in a deliberate action.
Inhabited worlds on which the Essen come experience attacks at regular intervals, necessitating tightly built stone walls and constant watch.
It is unknown if they are sapient, but some stories speak of cults dedicated to the xenos lessening th eir attacks through worship and sacrifice.
Yet another threat within the Net of N'zoagew is that of the Enosselemen.
These are bizarre, insubstantial entities which roam around areas stuck on the other side in seemingly aimless scheduled patterns.
Upon exposure to intelligent life, however, an Enosseleman will speak to them in their own tongue, offering a reward in return for services rendered.
The problem lies in how the entity will often block the return path until the "deal" is agreed to.
Victims caught in a group may escape if fortunate, but a solitary individual is almost certainly trapped.
The mentioned reward is unknown, any "rewarded" have not returned to speak of it.
It is thought that they are drawn deeper into the depths to whence the Enosselemen came.
The name "N'zoagew" possesses a source deep in pre-Sector history.
A rogue trader of forgotten lineage reportedly came in contact with an abandoned ship somewhere in the Veil, inside which he found deranged scrawlings covering the walls and all timepieces smashed.
Among the ramblings he found a map of what would become the Ætern Sector, partly covered by blasphemous texts and blank scrolls.
Scribbled over and over again at the lower stretch were the words N'ZOAGEW WILL SAFEGUARD THE WAY AND CATCH THE FOOLISH.
Perhaps more intriguing, this map continued on beyond the Net to cover at least two more sub-sectors worth of territory.
Investigations into the truth of this information are ongoing, and a sizeable reward has been quietly posted to find a way through the Net.
As an additional note, the Net itself can have sections breached or cut, but only the solidified flax.
The region of space beyond should be an opportunity for riches and glory, certainly, but it may also hold more answers and raise more questions about the nature of Ætern.
It may even involve the builders of the Clock, and where they went.
Eight Marines making the command, and presumed teachers of the reformed chapter.
One newly trained from Mars, brother Circuire, and one who was sent with the remaining chapter relics to search for their progenitor chapter, brother Nodus.
Accompanying him is a retinue of serfs and a master artificer aboard the Nova class frigate "Onward March".
Laqueus, a captain returned from the deathwatch.
Ansabal, an ironclad chaplain dreadnought, dredged up from a swamp formed of the bloody remnants of hive tyrants, still clutching the skull of their ward.
Five newly armored tacticals and a sergeant, brother Geniculatus, too far from their chapter to die in the defense.
The Gladius frigate they ride has been renamed "Actuary of Hope", and by Ansabal's direction they have been picking up the pieces.
As for the newly minted, they will not be allowed names until their twelfth battle survived.
No neophytes, scouts, and barely enough serfs remained to man the craft.
After the starward members were retrieved the forlorn remnants made journey to Terra, intent to intercept their last member from Mars.
They decided it was best to donate their remaining geneseed, as the chapter was still officially active but had yet to send its tithes.
They arrived after much turbulence, riding out what they thought was a rogue wave in the warp.
News reached them quickly and shockingly, and much to their surprise the Primarch Guilliman, seeing their plight in his marshalling of forces, made special dispensations to salvage their honor and existence.
Of note, he correctly guessed their progenitor without opening sealed records.
Something only brother Ansabal remembered.
Thus they became one of the first chapters to receive Primaris reinforcements, who quickly outnumbered their sires.
Once preparations are complete they plan to return with vengeance upon the encroaching xenos, a poster child of the Indomitus crusade.
Tired and low on autism, so I'll bring this in: alt music " Our boots touch the ground when we are dead.
When on combat missions, they paint their insignias bright and will fill the air with their howling.
His craftsmanship was directly responsible for the destruction of a heavily entrenched secessionist army on the world of Reikholme, the machines' speed and durability outmatching all anti-air pitted against them.
Most of their ships are modified to provide carrier capacity for fightercraft and bombers.
Each Company has a portion of its number allocated to piloting fliers, First Company containing the largest portion at 70%.
The rest of the typical Company consists of mounted Battle Brothers either on assault bikes or Land speeders, their loadouts customized to fulfill other combat roles such as the heavy weapons normally accorded to Devastators, or in the case of Apothecaries, hoversled stretchers and extra medical equipment.
Each Company contains at least one Techmarine called Tösöl Lexists in their tongue and at least two tech-apprentices to maintain its extensive motorpool.
Thanks to this property, they are always part of Company Command, and more than once, a Master of the Forge has also become Great Khan.
Scouts are also incorporated into each Company, usually functioning as spotters for bombing.
Lexists double as hymn-authors and coordinate synchronized throat singing chorus for shock and morale purposes.
Whirlwinds and Predators are helmed by well-trained Chapter serfs scout sergeants are occasionally in command.
Witnesses have compared deployment to sudden lightning storms.
These flying tanks came about thanks to Tymur Khan discovering an ancient printout in truth, a prototype blueprint from the Great Crusade which he committed to memory before its journey to the Adeptus Mechanicus.
With a few modifications, the Techmarine created a machine with the speed of Stormhawk Interceptor, the durability of a Dreadnought, and the heavy firepower of both.
In addition to its ranged loadout, the pattern has a pair of bladed arms which may unfold from its chassis to give its occupant melee capability.
These Dreadnoughts tend to be unusually active and spirited, seeing their status as a true honor after all, they really won't touch the ground ever again.
When in doubt, they look to him, not to the Codex.
Whenever possible, they send archeotech and fresh leads back to Mars.
In turn, the Mechanicus supplies them with ample fliers and turns a blind eye to some of their odder variations.
Evasmasha who have earned their unending ire.
After a particularly tumultuous battle on Vogtei Kirschlant, it was discovered that Lootas had downed and then stolen a Dreadnought, converting the honored hero into a custom Fighta-Bomma.
This deed so incensed the Forge Khan that he razed that entire region from the air.
And there you have it.
Their color-scheme I figure for white and blue with some red, their symbol a red martlet the legendary bird of heraldry born without feet holding a white lightning bolt in its talons on a field of blue.
Fuggoff, I'm that tired.
Click thumbnail to play.
Maaaybe this is for the non-criminal parts of the legion.
Perhaps in that society, all of the above are of the "right" castes for it.
Let us also remember that the Eldar immigrants fall under the "Abhuman" label.
No, that doesn't make sense…Uh, a Death World?
Okay, we can work with that.
Not even the most poisonous of Hive Worlds get called that.
Let us assume that the civilized parts of the just click for source s are that, and… Desert.
Well, seeing as they have Eldar and Eldar hybrids in their ranks, this makes some sense.
Emperor, their ideological doctrine puts them on the same lofty perch as the Death Korps of Krieg and many Sisters of Battle.
Well then, we shall say that the "Abhumans" have reforged the Legion's lasguns, autoguns, and blades to reach a better standard.
Our Friends are the good ol' Adeptus Arbites.
Who likely locked us up in the first place.
Maybe we have an understanding with the Law that allowed us to-!
If we ever wind up on other Imperial worlds for whatever reason, especially ones outside the Bram Highlands, the Arbites ensure no heretic-hunting frenzy claims us.
In short, smoothing things over and making sure certain loopholes in the law stay open.
Evasmasha can be quite the handful as of late, and feral ork uprisings are nothing to sneeze at… But our true foes are the Lady of Monsters and Hashut himself.
Instead, they often engage in speedy combat with cults worshipping the aforementioned Daemons, usually seconded to certain Inquisitors charged with investigating said cults.
Their colors are gray, jet black, and orange, reflecting how the fire of duty scours their sins into ashes itself taken from the Reluctant Saint Sian's fiery purges across Sub-sector Bram Highlands.
KORSE, DEM SPLINTERIN GITZ AV DEIR OWN STOOPID IDEARZ.
DEM PANZEEZ SAID DERE WAZ GOOD FOIGHTIN' ERE, AN' EVASMASHA TORE ROIGHT FRU TA GET IN!
DEM OOMIEZ KAN'T GET US OUT NOW, AN WE'Z KRUMPIN' ERRY BUNCH DEY SEND UZ, SPESHUALLY DEM RED CYBOYZ.
NEVAH MOIND DA SPLINTERIN', LEGGIN ITZ, AN ZOGGIN WEIRD MUCKIN' ABOUT IN SUM BOYZ.
DERE'Z NO NEED TA SHNEEK WHEN YOOZ KAN HIT DIS ARD!
MOH'LL SHOW UP ROIGHT QWIK!
SHUR DA PANZEEZ GAVE UZ A MAP, BUT DEM ZOAT GITZ MAKE SUM DED KILLY SHOOTAZ AN CHOP.
LOOTIN A UGE BUG ON MUNKYWURLD IZ FUN TOO.
OOMIEZ IZ GUD SCRAP, BUT DEM BEARDY WUNZ IZ WEIRD.
OI DON' LOIKEZ DEM YELLA FREEKZ WUN BIT.
ROIGHT UNORKY DEY IZ, TAKIN ORDAZ FRUM OOMIEZ LOIKE DAT.
OI DON' LOIKEZ DEM SICKBEASTZ EITHA.
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Slats are surfaces on the leading edge of the of which, when deployed, allow the wing to operate at a higher.
They are usually used while landing or performing maneuvers which take the aircraft close to thebut are usually retracted in normal flight to minimize.
Slats are one of several used onsuch as systems running along the slots and wings edge of the wing.
The position of the leading-edge slats on an airliner.
In this picture, the slats are drooped.
Note also the extended.
As the slots and wings slows down, the aerodynamic force is reduced and the springs extend the slats.
Sometimes referred to as Handley-Page slats.
Fixed The slat is permanently extended.
This is sometimes used on specialist low-speed aircraft these are referred to as or when simplicity takes precedence over speed.
Powered The slat extension can be controlled by the pilot.
This is commonly used on airliners.
The slats may extend over the outer third of slots and wings wing, or they may cover the entire.
Many early aerodynamicists, includingbelieved that slats work by inducing a high energy stream to the flow of the mainthus re-energizing its and delaying stall.
In reality, the slat does not give the air in the slot high velocity it actually reduces its velocity and also it cannot be called high-energy air since all the air outside the actual boundary layers has the same total heat.
The actual effects of the slat are: The slat effect The velocities at the leading edge of the downstream element main are reduced due to the of the upstream element slat thus reducing the pressure peaks of the downstream element.
The circulation effect The circulation of the downstream element increases the circulation of the upstream element thus improving its aerodynamic performance.
The dumping effect The discharge velocity at the trailing edge of the slat is increased due to the circulation of the main airfoil thus alleviating separation problems or increasing lift.
Off the slots and wings pressure recovery The deceleration of the slat wake occurs in an efficient manner, out of contact with a wall.
Fresh boundary layer effect Each new element starts out with a fresh at its.
Thin boundary layers can withstand stronger adverse than thick ones.
The slat has a counterpart found in the wings of some birds, thea feather or group of feathers which the bird can extend under control of its "thumb".
The stall-related crash in August 1917 of a aeroplane prompted Lachmann to develop the idea and a small wooden model was built in 1917 in.
In Germany in 1918 Lachmann presented a patent for leading-edge slats.
However, the German patent office at first rejected it as the office did not believe the possibility of postponing the stall by dividing the wing.
Independently of Lachmann, Ltd in Great Britain also developed the slotted wing as a way to postpone the stall by delaying separation of slots with free no deposit bonus and free spins flow from the upper surface of the wing at high angles of attack, and applied for a patent in 1919; to avoid a patent challenge, they reached an ownership agreement with Lachmann.
That year a was fitted with slats and test flown.
Several years later, having subsequently taken employment at the Handley-Page aircraft company, Lachmann was responsible for a number of aircraft designs, including the.
Licensing the design became one of the company's major sources of income in the 1920s.
The original designs were in the form of a fixed slot near the leading edge of the wing, a design that was used on a number of aircraft.
During World War II, German aircraft commonly fitted a more advanced version of the slat that reduced by being pushed back flush against the leading edge of the wing bypopping out when the angle of attack increased to a critical angle.
Notable slats of that time belonged to the German Storch.
These were similar in design to retractable slats, but were fixed and non-retractable.
This design feature allowed the aircraft to take-off into a light wind in less than 45 m 150 ftand land in 18 m 60 ft.
Aircraft designed by the company employed automatic, spring-loaded leading-edge slats as a general rule, except for the -designed Komet rocket fighter, which instead used fixed slots built integrally with, and just behind, slots and wings wing panel's outer leading edges.
Post-World War II, slats have slots and wings been used on larger aircraft and generally operated by or.
These may be used in many UAVs and 6th generation.
One promising approach that could rival slats are flexible wings.
In flexible wings, much or all of a wing surface can change shape in flight to deflect air flow.
The is a effort.
The is a military and commercial effort.
Handley Page 2012-11-03 at the Flight, December read article, 1921, photo page 844 of converted D.
Handley Page 2012-11-03 at the Flight, December 22nd 1921, photo page 845 of converted D.
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Aviation Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for aircraft pilots, mechanics, and enthusiasts.
Join them; it only slots and wings a minute: If you look at image slots and wings in the PHAK Chapter 5 about leading edge lift devices you see this: However the paragraph preceding it states High-lift devices also can be applied to the leading edge of the airfoil.
The most common types are fixed slots, movable slats, leading article source flaps, and cuffs.
So is this a typo?
Should the image say 'movable slat' instead of 'movable slot'?
This leads into my main question which is, what are the differences between a slat and a slot?
If I were to get asked this by an examiner what would a good response be?
I guess it should be movable slat.
A leading edge slot is basically a spanwise opening in the wing.
Slats are aerodynamic surfaces in the leading edge, which when deployed, allows the wing to operate at higher angle of attack.
When deployed, the slat opens up a slot between itself and the wing.
In this case, the terms slot and slat are used interchangeably.
Licensed under CC BY 3.
A number of airliners use movable slats, in which case, the system is called slat, rather than slot.
Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.
In short, the system is pretty much the same, slots and wings is usually called slat in case of movable one and slot in case of fixed one.
It seems to me that fixed slot is simply a permanent, spanwise hole in the leading edge of the wing.
It would be fair.
This was the meaning in which.
The droop is usually a deployable LE device.
LE cuff is a fixed LE droop and is used as a general term, which probably got its name from the shape of the sharp cut off point.
NASA did a lot of research into this for spin resistance and called it drooped LE, not cuff.
Provide details and share your research!
To learn more, see our.
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Amsterdamer Beitrage zur alteren Germanistik.
Band 63 - 2007 Amsterdamer Beitrage Zur Alteren Germanistik German Edition - PDF Free Download Amsterdamer Beitrage zur alteren Germanistik.
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Lieferung: swâr bis swûr.
Bearbeitet von Christa Hepfer swâr -swî und Kerstin Giese swibboge-swûrNeumünster 2005 Arend Quak B.
Los, The Rise of the To-Infinitive, Oxford 2005 Hendrik de Smet Christoph Fasbender Hg.
Intertextuality and Interpretation Arthurian Studies; 62Cambridge 2005 Fritz Wagner A Companion to the Works of Hartmann von Aue, edited by Francis G.
Gentry Studies in German Literature, Linguistics, and CultureNew York 2005 Fritz Wagner Mai und Beaflor.
Herausgegeben, übersetzt, kommentiert und mit einer Einleitung von Albrecht Classen Beihefte zur Mediaevistik, Bd.
In the remaining German territory, the glottalization may have affected the preceding vocalic segment in different ways.
This development resembles the West Norse preaspiration and the East Norse gemination in the fact that the preceding vowel is cut short by the original preglottalized stop but differs from these because the vowel is not continued as a whisper and the following consonant is not geminated.
There is no reason to assume that voicedness played an independent role here.
The relevant data are the following.
Since it has been argued that the Lithuanian acute 1 and the Latvian stretched ~ tone arose from a loss of glottalization e.
The distribution of the tone accents in the larger northwestern A and the smaller southeastern B parts of the Central Franconian area is as follows cf.
Non-high long vowels and diphthongs are falling in A and stretched in B.
High long vowels and diphthongs, lengthened short vowels, and short vowels with tautosyllabic resonants are stretched in A and falling in B when they are followed by an original final consonant or non-final preglottalized stop.
Elsewhere these vowels and sequences are falling in A and stretched in B, except lengthened short vowels, which are falling in both A and B.
Thus, it appears that glottalization was lost after non-high long vowels and diphthongs at an early stage, after which it yielded a stretched tone in A, as in Latvian, and a falling tone in B, as in Lithuanian.
We must now ask: how did the bifurcation of glottalization into a stretched tone in the northwest and a falling tone in the southeast come about?
It is important to understand the phonetic influence of glottalization on word melody.
When the glottal closure is formed, the vocal cords are tightened so that the pitch of the sound goes up.
The flow of air is then interrupted and subsequently continued at a lower pitch when the glottal closure is released.
When a following voiceless consonant is short, the rise of the pitch may be more prominent than its fall, but when it is long, the fall of the pitch may be more prominent than its rise.
As a result, we expect a falling tone near the Rhine Franconian area, where the glottal stop was oralized and 3 lengthened the following fricative, but a stretched tone in the northwest, where the rise of the pitch before the short interruption of the air flow prevented the pitch from falling below the level it would reach without the glottal closure.
This is indeed what we find.
Thus, the bifurcation of the glottalization into a stretched tone in A and a falling tone in B is explained by the relative prominence of the rise of pitch before and the fall of pitch after the glottal closure.
The word melody was then transferred to the initial syllable, yielding a tonemic opposition on long nuclei.
The transfer was clearly anterior to the apocope because original monosyllables adopted the new, marked tone, as if followed by a word-initial glottal stop.
It also preceded the lengthening of short vowels in open syllables in B because these never developed a stretched tone.
The rise of the stretched tone read article A and the falling tone in B may to some extent be compared with the rise of preaspiration in West Norse, where glottalization cut short the preceding vowel, and gemination in East Norse, where it lengthened the following consonant.
The big difference is that the rise of a devoiced segment in West Norse and of an oral occlusion in East Norse eliminated the pitch effects and thereby prevented the rise of a distinct tone pattern.
Tonakzente im rechtsrheinischen Regelumkehrgebiet: Eine phonetisch-phonologische Analyse 84 Jahre nach Adolf Bachs Entdeckung Marburg: M.
Proto-Germanic obstruents, in: ABäG 27, 3-10.
The High German consonant shift, in: ABäG 46, 53-57; Korrektur, in: ABäG 47, 231.
Glottalization, preaspiration and gemination in English and Scandinavian, in: ABäG 58, 5-10.
Towards an explanation of the Franconian tone accents, in: ABäG 51, 23-44.
Beekes 1995: 176, Boutkan 1995: 278, Kortlandt 2006: 3 : nom.
While High German generalized the lenited obstruent in bodam, bodem, Boden and Scandinavian generalized the fortis stop in botn, 6 the original alternation was apparently preserved in OE bodan beside botem and in OS dat.
These two datings support each other if Gothic originated in the southernmost part of the Germanic territories, as I have argued earlier 2001.
Campbell 1959: 171, Brunner 1965: 163.
Kortlandt 1986: 440—442, 1999: 45.
This development can now be added to the list of innovations which reached the continental homeland of the Anglo-Saxons from the south between the two waves of migration ibidem.
The argument can only be used against the outdated view that the Germanic voiceless stops directly continue the voiceless ejectives of the Indo-European proto-language, which is still supported by Perridon 2006: 02.
As I have argued elsewhere 2003a, 2003b, 2007the hypothesis that preaspiration originated from a lenition of preglottalized stops in the 7th century at a time when all obstruents were voiceless accounts for a wide range of different phenomena.
After the late Proto-Germanic devoicing of the original preglottalized voiced stops, further delay of the voice onset time yielded post-aspiration in wordinitial position so as to maintain the distinctive glottal articulation when the lenes were also devoiced.
Comparative Indo-European linguistics: An introduction, Amsterdam-Philadelphia.
Old Frisian etymological dictionary, Leiden-Boston.
Old English Gramma, Oxford.
The origin of the Old English dialects.
Proto-Germanic obstruents, in: ABäG 27, 3—10.
The High German consonant shift, in: ABäG 46, 53—57; Korrektur, in: ABäG 47, 231.
The origin of the Old English dialects revisited, sun and moon slot game free ABäG51, 45—51.
The origin of the Goths, in: ABäG 55, 21—25.
Glottalization, preaspiration and gemination in English and Scandinavian, in: ABäG 58, 5—10.
Early Runic consonants and the origin of the younger futhark, in: NOWELE 43, 71—76.
The inflexion of the Germanic n—stems, in: NOWELE 48, 3—7.
Proto-Germanic obstruents and the comparative method, in: NOWELE 51 forthc.
Gemination and allomorphy in the Proto-Germanic mn—stems: bottom and rime, in: ABäG 61, 17—25.
Reconstructing the obstruents of Proto-Germanic.
Das erste u ist gewendet, das zweite gestürzt und das r auch.
Die Punktierung des n zeigt an, daß die Lesung nicht sicher ist.
Nebenstedt I nach J.
Nur Antonsen ist 1975, 62f.
Und jedenfalls hat das Zeichen zwei kreuzende Schrägstriche, gleicht also weit mehr einem g als einem n, das hier mit seiner Senkrechten viel Platz gespart hätte, zugunsten des letzten Zeichens, das nur mit Mühe noch Platz fand.
Düwel ging auf die Begründung für Bugges Deutung nicht weiter ein, sondern schloß sich ihr an.
Diese Formel ist auf zwei dänischen Runensteinen der Wikingerzeit mit und ohne Demonstrativpronomen belegt, während auf einem dritten das Denkmal selbst Objekt ist und ein schwedischer Stein die Formel ohne Objekt bietet.
Sie diente offenbar dem Schutz der Runensteine.
Hier handelt es sich um einen Exorzismus.
Legt Mjöllnir der Maid in den Schoß!
Mit der Hand der Var weiht uns zusammen.
Vígja hat dabei die Bedeutung von benedicere und auch exorcizare angenommen.
Aller2 Seine eigene Begründung S.
Der wirkliche Sachverhalt ist aber der, daß Bugges Lesung von dieser Runenweihe inspiriert war.
Folglich ist auch die fragwürdige Lesung n aufzugeben und zu der Lesung g zurückzukehren.
Die Heranziehung der späteren Überlieferung ist für die Deutung solcher Inschriften sicher unerläßlich, weil sie für sich genommen kaum verständlich werden.
Geschichte hat stattgefunden und damit auch keineswegs nur oberflächliche Veränderung.
So ist es auch verfehlt, in glïaugiR einen Gott zu erkennen.
Er verglich altnordisch eineygr und Báleygr, und er sah auch schon, daß sich diese Benennung auf das Brakteatenbild beziehen läßt: Ein Männlein mit großem, kreisrundem Auge, in dem er aufgrund der angenommenen Weiheformel Thor go here wollte.
Die Vorfügung von wigi- machte ihn mit wodan reimend.
Norwegen als Báleygs brúð, Odinsbraut von See 1980, 38.
Für den Binnenreim der skaldischen Verse war eine Variation Bileygr : Báleygr auch ganz praktisch.
Da gibt es also keine Geschichte mehr, sondern nur noch Gleichsetzung.
Das erste Beispiel dafür soll der Brakteat Sievern-A mit der von Wolfgang Krause r.
Primär würde eine solche Verschreibung aber die mangelhafte Schriftbeherrschung des Herstellers dokumentieren bei Brakteaten häufigund in Järsberg ist es ein erilaR, der diese Formel gebraucht.
Es ist also Willkür, die IchForm auf einen Gott zu beziehen.
Man müßte here auch noch eine Tabuisierung der Götternamen postulieren.
Das kehrt die Beweislage um und illustriert noch schlagender, wie fatal 5 Die ideologische Voraussetzung dafür bildete der Wodanismus Otto Höflers.
IXdie für Haucks Verständnis von Bilddenkmälern bestimmend blieb.
Wie nahtlos sich Haucks Deutungen in Höflers Vorstellungen einfügten, zeigt dessen Besprechung von 1972.
Eine nüchterne Kritik von Haucks Argumenten für Wodan bietet Kathryn Starkey 1999, die aber in Anm.
Nur sie erklärt aber, warum Hauck alles auf Wodan beziehen wollte.
Das wird von einem Bild inspiriert sein.
Wie Feuer flammt es aus Freyjas Blick!
Diese Schilderungen haben mehr Gewicht als das willkürliche Herausgreifen eines von vielen Odinsnamen, der nirgendwo motiviert wird, und den zweiten Vers þicci mér ór augom eldr of brenna hatte schon Bugge herangezogen.
Aber feurige Augen kommen in der altnordischen Überlieferung noch öfters vor, bei Ungeheuern und Helden, und so ist es auch Willkür, dabei nur an Götter zu denken, statt die ganze Palette der Verwendungen dieses Motivs zu berücksichtigen.
Es ist ja nackt, sein Mund weit geöffnet, die rechte Hand umfaßt das Kinn, die linke bedeckt die Scham.
Mit dieser Gestik dürfte eine höchst irdische Notlage bezeichnet sein, so drastisch, daß es schwer zu begreifen ist, wie man darin je einen Gott erkennen und mehr als ein Jahrhundert daran festhalten konnte.
Das signalisiert hier die drachengleiche Wut des seines Hortes beraubten und versklavten Meisterschmieds, der daraufhin auch noch gelähmt wird.
Und so könnte auch hier statt der Wut Wodans oder Thors ohnmächtige Wut gemeint sein, die der Not entspringt.
Alles weitere hängt von der Deutung der folgenden Zeichensequenz 14 ab.
Die Alternative zu Bugges Deutung ist, uïurgR als eine glïaugiR analoge Personenbezeichnung aufzufassen.
Das hatte schon Henning 1889 angenommen freilich RE.
URGZ gelesenund dazu kann man auf dem Brakteaten Seeland II hariuha haitika:farauisa vergleichen, wo zwei analoge und auch lautähnliche Benennungen aufeinanderfolgen.
Von einem dritten Wort fand gerade noch der erste Buchstabe l Platz.
Es hat sich zu einem überaus negativ aufgeladenen Wort entwickelt, wie die christliche Stabreimdichtung zeigt: Im altsächsischen Heliand ist Judas, der sich selbst erhängt, ein uuarg an uurgil v.
Dagegen wird in Bingo and machine II der Warg schroff dem Weisen kontrastiert und ist nichts als ein VerĀ sceal snotor hycgean brecher: ymb þysse worulde gewinn — wearh hangian, fægere ongildan þæt hē ǣ r fācen dyde manna cynne.
Auf Heerweihe durch Speerwurf wird die Inschrift auf dem Lanzenschaft von Kragehul bezogen Düwel 2001: 28in der sich wiju herauslösen läßt, das Vorbild für Bugges Lesung uıu auf dem Brakteaten.
Die Fortsetzung der Brakteaten-Inschrift lautet gibu auja.
Es ist einigermaßen verblüffend, daß die Glieder dieses Kompositums in einer Stabreimformel wiederkehren, die in den skandinavischen Sprachen noch fortlebt.
Und vé hat in beiden Fällen steigernde Funktion, den schlimmstmöglichen vargr bezeichnend.
Auch diese zweite Benennung läßt sich auf das Bild beziehen, obwohl sie in eine Richtung führt, die dem oben angestellten Vergleich mit Völund genau entgegengesetzt ist.
Aber womöglich signalisiert die linke Hand nicht Schamgefühl, sondern einen noch empfindlicheren Verlust: Qui fanum effregerit, et ibi aliqid de sacris tulerit, ducitur ad mare, et in sabulo, quod accessus maris operire wird beabsichtigt sein.
Der Ausdruck bezeichnet heute auch einfach eine persona non grata.
Es handelt sich dabei um einen in der Stabreimdichtung geläufigen Typ: Personenbezeichnung plus reimende Ortsbestimmung.
Aber das Ohr des Männleins ist jedenfalls nicht gespalten.
Der Brakteat Nebenstedt I steuert also tatsächlich etwas zu unserem Bild von der Religion des Nordens in der Völkerwanderungszeit bei, aber sozusagen im Negativ.
Wie paßt nun diese Deutung von Bild und Beischrift zu dem, was wir von den Brakteaten wirklich wissen?
Und man darf annehmen, daß auch die kaiserliche Vergabepraxis imitiert wurde.
Er zeigt das noch dem Kaiservorbild nahe Brustbild eines Mannes, der in der erhobenen Hand eine Münze oder einen Brakteaten halten dürfte.
Noch klarer auf eine solche Vergabepraxis weist die angelsächsische Inschrift auf dem frühen, von Hines um 475 datierten Brakteaten von Undley Suffolk.
Er kombiniert Vorder- und Rückseite eines Medail11 Nach Lex Frisionum Eckhardt 1982: 102f.
Vergleiche dazu auch altenglisch goldwine für Könige.
Königliche Geschenke nach Art der Heldendichtung sind die meist leichtgewichtigen Brakteaten 2 — 6 Gramm aber nicht.
Daß sie in der Regel eine Öse haben, muß nicht für Amulette sprechen, wie sie die lange Tradition religiöser Deutungen voraussetzt.
Und Haucks zentrales Postulat einer Umfunktionierung der Kaiserportraits zu Wodanbildern ist alles andere als plausibel.
Der sollte ausgerechnet in der die Völkerwanderungszeit nicht überdauernden Brakteatenmode vergessen und verdrängt worden sein?
Ein so schroffer Traditionsbruch ist unwahrscheinlich.
Die Inschrift paßt nur nicht zur wodanistischen Brakteatendeutung und wird deswegen beiseitegeschoben.
Wichtig ist zunächst, daß auch in walhakurn das zeitgenössische Verständnis der Brakteaten faßbar wird.
Kunimund, für den sicher mehr als das eine erhaltene Exemplar von der Matrize gepreßt wurde, wird sie auch großzügig verteilt haben und legte Wert darauf, an das kaiserliche Vorbild zu erinnern.
Anders als Wagner scheint es mir durchaus wahrscheinlich, daß es sich bei den bouga um ein Armreifpaar handelt.
Seiner Identifizierung steht aber gerade der Höfler-Haucksche Wodanismus im Weg, der Wodan oder wenigstens einen Wodan-Bezug17 überall sehen wollte und damit blind für Unterschiede und alles andere war.
Auf dem Brakteaten Nebenstedt I tritt jedoch an die Stelle des Kaisers ein Schurke, der Tempelgold geraubt hat und dafür leiden muß.
Gemeinsam ist ihnen der Goldbezug, aber ein stärkerer Kontrast ist nicht denkbar.
Ein so ungewöhnliches Motiv kann auch erklären, warum hier die Inschrift das Bild erläutert.
Ohne sie könnten wir den Sinn des Bildes auch gar nicht erkennen.
Der leidende Schurke dürfte damit ein in die Brakteaten-Ikonologie und -Phraseologie passendes Motiv sein.
Pferdeheilung ist also kein annehmbares Brakteatenthema.
Die Pferde der C-Brakteaten haben oft Brust- und Bauchgurt, was für Wagenpferde spricht und damit zu Seebolds Deutung siehe Anm.
Römische Sage erinnert der Brakteat von Undley, und im frühen 8.
Die Rückkehr zur Lesung g führt also nicht nur zu einer neuen Deutung der Inschrift und des Bildes, sondern ergibt auch eine auf den Brakteaten meines Wissens bisher nicht vermutete Bildfunktion.
Der Brakteat Nebenstedt I bezeugt weder Thors Runenweihe Bugge noch eine Runenweihe Wodans Ellmers, Hauck und Düwelsondern bietet das Schreckbild eines Warg, das die Folgen der Goldgier ausmalt.
Die Deutung der Brakteatenbilder und -Inschriften bleibt freilich ein riskantes Geschäft an https://free-slots-money.website/and-slot/free-slots-and-bingo.html Grenze unserer Verständnismöglichkeiten.
Sie sind uns nun einmal ferner und fremder als ihre römischen Vorbilder, und daran wird keine Anstrengung etwas ändern.
Literatur Antonsen, Elmer H.
Bugge, Sophus, 1893: Norges Indskrifter med de ældre Runer Bd.
Das muß aber nicht bedeuten, daß Brakteat und Casket eine angelsächsische Tradition verbindet: Das Thema konnte jederzeit neu aus der fortbestehenden antiken Tradition entlehnt werden.
Düwel, Klaus, 1977: Die 15.
Rune auf dem Brakteaten von Nebenstedt I.
Eichner, Heiner, 1990: Die Ausprägung der linguistischen Physiognomie des Englischen anno 400 bis anno 600 n.
Forschungen 217Heidelberg, 307-333.
Ellmers, Detlev 1970: Zur Ikonographie nordischer Goldbrakteaten, in: Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz 17, 201-284.
Dansk — Norsk bokmål — Svensk, 2.
Sechzehn Aufsätze zum neuen Forschungsstand Wege der ForschungDarmstadt.
Hauck, Karl, 1970: Goldbrakteaten aus Sievern Münstersche Mittelalter-Schriften 1München.
Henning, Rudolf, 1889: Die deutschen Runendenkmäler, Straßburg Herrmann, Paul transl.
Fricke et alii edd.
Frühzeit, Stuttgart und Berlin, 73-98.
Studia Germanistica Upsaliensia 12Uppsala.
Marold, Edith, 1974: Thor weihe diese Runen, in: Frühmittelalterliche Studien 8, 195222.
Seebold, Elmar, 1992: Römische Münzbilder und germanische Symbolwelt.
Beck et alii edd.
Quellen und Quellenprobleme Ergänzungsbände zum Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde 5Berlin— New York, 270-335.
Starkey, Kathryn, 1999: Imagining an Early Odin: Gold Bracteates as Visual Evidence?
See, Klaus von, 1980: Skaldendichtung.
Wagner, Norbert, 1975: Cheisuringu gitan, zu v.
My path through the hall is from hand to hand As friends raise me, proud men and women Clutch and kiss me, praise my power And bow before me.
Anderson 1986: 142on the other hand, argues that the form gecyssað in 30b appears to be a deliberate variant of cyssað in Riddle 30a.
The present texts are based on the facsimile edition of Chambers et al.
In the riddle, however, either line is metrically correct; it is certainly difficult to determine any significant lexical distinction between cyssan and gecyssan.
The West Saxon Gospels are quoted from Grünberg 1967.
In the manuscripts pertaining to the Exeter corpus, among which are the West Saxon Gospels, the earliest extant Old English translation of the Gospel of Nicodemus, and the Exeter Book,10 gecyssan of Riddle 30b is a hapax.
Liuzza 1988 observes that the Exeter Book Riddles were not carefully copied: multiple slips occur throughout the collection.
On the affiliation of Cambridge, University Library, Ii.
See also the Gospel of Slots uk and bingo, 15.
In both Daniel and Azarias, the prefix is not metrically necessary.
Yet finite forms of the verb gebletsian do not appear in the Exeter Book, whereas finite forms of both bletsian and gebletsian are found throughout the Junius manuscript, and Daniel, in particular.
Inflectional morphology likewise appears to be subject to levelling.
Compare, for instance, the Exeter and Vercelli copies of Soul and Body: þærþu þon hogode her onlife þenden icþe inworulde wunian sceolde, 40 þæt þuwære þurh flæsc 7þurh firen lustas stronge gestyred 7gestaþelad þurh mec.
For complete list, see Bessinger and Smith 1978.
Present participle is always bletsiend ee.
There are no finite forms of the verb ge bletsian in the Gospel of Nicodemus.
Significantly, bletsode in Mt 26:26 in the West Saxon Gospels corresponds to gebletsode in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 140 and Oxford, Bodleian Library Bodley 441 and gebloedsade in the Lindisfarne Gospels.
Soul and Body I, 42-48 18 Another example is Azarias 73b vs.
Daniel 362a cited above.
According to Bessinger - Smith, out of 193 instances of mec in the poetic records, 156 are found in the Exeter Book, and out of 97 instances of þec, 58 are in the Exeter Book.
This statistics does not, of course, present the entire picture, for it does not inform us about the number of cases in which the syncretic me and þe are used for accusative.
However, preservation of distinction between dative and accusative on a par with its later effacement indicate that one of the scribal goals is grammatical coherence.
It is also noteworthy that in spite of the substantial variation between Riddles 30a and 30b, both texts exhibit the form mec.
Doane concludes that Anglo-Saxon scribes were preoccupied with layout and spacing rather than with accuracy of verbal reflection.
The consistency with which the exemplified forms occur throughout the Exeter corpus suggests that morphological levelling might have been part and parcel of scribal contract as well.
Jared Klein and Prof.
Andy Orchard whose valuable suggestions I have incorporated in this paper.
The Exeter Book of Old English poetry, London.
Two Old English apocrypha and their manuscript source: The Gospel of Nicodemus and The Avenging of the Saviour, Cambridge.
The Second Series, EETS ss 5Oxford.
The West Saxon Gospels; A study of the Gospel of St.
Matthew with text of the four gospels, Amsterdam.
Krapp, George Philip ed.
The Junius Manuscript, New York.
The Old English version of the Gospels, 2 vols.
The Gospel according to Saint Luke in Anglo-Saxon, Northumbrian, and Old Mercian Versions, synoptically arranged, with collations exhibiting all the readings of all the MSS, Cambridge.
Secondary Sources Anderson, James E.
Two literary riddles in the Exeter Book, Norman.
A concordance to the Anglo-Saxon poetic records, with an index of compounds by Michael W.
Anglo-Saxon spirituality: Selected writings, New York.
New approaches to editing Old English verse, Cambridge; Rochester, NY.
Old English preverbal ge-: Its meaning, Charlottesville.
Mitchell, Bruce, and Fred C.
A guide to Old English, 6th edn.
Manuscript variation in multiple recension Old English poetic texts: The technical problem and poetic art.
Electronic Reprint, Version 2.
Visible song: Transitional literacy in Old English verse, Cambridge.
The editing of Old English: Papers from the 1990 Manchester conference, Woodbridge, Suffolk; New York.
The feast of creatures: Anglo-Saxon riddle songs, Philadelphia.
Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik 63 200729-42 DIE FRECKENHORSTER HEBEROLLE - EINE FÄLSCHUNG?
Von diesem Denkmal sind zwei Handschriften bekannt.
Erstens die in Fragmenten aufgefundene, inzwischen verschollene Handschrift K in Rollenform und zweitens die etwas später entdeckte Handschrift M in Codexform, die sich heute im Staatsarchiv Münster befindet.
Hier soll die Handschrift K bzw.
Insbesondere wird es um eine Klärung der verschiedentlich aufgeworfenen Frage gehen, ob K eine Fälschung ist.
Was ist von Handschrift K bekannt?
Allgemeine Informationen Die Handschrift K ist benannt nach ihrem vormaligen Besitzer Nikolaus Kindlinger.
April 1803 an den Meininger Bibliothekar und Heliandforscher Wilhelm Reinwald.
Näheres zu Kindlinger: siehe Teil II.
Dies ist ein beachtenswerter Umstand, da Heberegister meist in Latein geschrieben wurden.
Jedoch sind aus dem altsächsischen Sprachraum noch weitere volksprachliche Güterverzeichnisse bekannt.
Wolfgang Metz,6 der anscheinend beim Freckenhorster Heberegister mit einer bis ins 9.
Jahrhundert zurückreichenden Überlieferungsgeschichte des Textes rechnet, führt diese Auffälligkeit darauf zurück, daß der besagte Sprachraum angelsächsischer Missionsbereich war, das angelsächsische Idiom im 9.
Jahrhundert dem altsächsischen noch recht ähnlich war und die angelsächsischen Missionare es gewohnt waren, in der Volkssprache zu schreiben.
Allerdings wurde das Freckenhorster Heberegister erst gegen Ende des 11.
Jahrhunderts angelegt, also lange nach Abschluß der angelsächsischen Mission.
Es ist daher fraglich, ob dies die wirkliche Ursache für die Volkssprachlichkeit des Registers ist.
Grund für die Anfertigung der Aufstellung scheinen die Neuordnungen im Klosterbereich durch die von Bischof Erpho von Münster 1084-1097 im Jahre 1090 erlassene Urkunde gewesen zu sein.
Der Editionstext dieser ersten Veröffentlichung der Handschrift K ist mit einer Anzahl Fehlern behaftet.
Auch das Faksimile scheint nicht wie von Fischer angegeben - gänzlich sorgfältig wiedergegeben, da dem initialen T am Anfang ein Teil des Balkens fehlt.
Einen Scan vom Scan des Exemplars der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek München fügen wir hier ein: 6 Metz 1958: 183-206, hier mit Hinweis auf Kötzschke, Gallée und Wadstein.
Abdruck der Urkunde bei Kindlinger 1790: 55-63.
In: Dorow 1924: 48.
In diesem Nachlaß gibt es eine handschriftliche Untersuchung Kindlingers, have sun and moon slots speaking der er auch auf Freckenhorster Verhältnisse zu sprechen kommt.
So stützt sich Friedlaenders Bearbeitung ebenfalls auf das Faksimile und die Teilausgabe des Textes der Fischerschen Ausgabe.
Bei der Rekonstruktion, der Friedlaender die Rollenform zugrunde legt, führt er aus, daß sich mit Hilfe der erhaltenen Handschrift M nachvollziehen lasse, wie viel Text genau diesem ausgelassenen Abschnitt von eineinhalb Seiten entspricht.
Dies sind 24 Codex-Zeilen, die also 48 Zeilen in K entsprächen.
Daraus folgert er, daß eine Seite von K 32 Zeilen lang gewesen sein müsse.
Die von Friedlaender errechnete Kürze der Zeilen von ca.
Mit Seiten sind hier wohl Columnen gemeint.
Die Auslassung betrifft in der Ausgabe Wadsteins S.
Laut seiner Rekonstruktion beliefen sich die ursprünglichen Maße der gesamten Rolle auf ca.
Dabei geht er allerdings von der antiken Form der Schriftrolle aus, die von links nach rechts bzw.
Die mittelalterliche Rolle hingegen wurde von oben nach unten und umgekehrt gerollt.
So wie die Frage nach der Rollenform, sind auch andere Einzelheiten durch das Verschwinden des Fragmentes K nicht mehr eindeutig zu klären.
Als zusätzlich ungünstig erweist sich die Tatsache, daß sich in Fischers Ausgabe viele offensichtliche Lesefehler befinden, so wie auch unbeabsichtigte Auslassungen - vermutlich durch Zeilensprung - beim Abgleich mit M nachweisbar sind.
Kurzer inhaltlicher Vergleich der Handschriften K und M Vergleicht man K und M, so stellt man fest, daß das Fragment K dem zweiten Teil von M, also dem eigentlichen Heberegister, entspricht.
Lediglich kommen im Gegensatz zu K in M auch einzelne lateinische Worte vor.
Eine schöne Abbildung eines mittelalterlichen Rotulus findet sich bei Mai 1966: S.
Teil 1 führt einen Zehnten auf.
Teil 2 ist das eigentliche Heberegister und der einzige volkssprachliche Bestandteil.
Teil 3 enthält ein Ausgabenverzeichnis, Angaben über Eingänge beim Stiftsspeicher und eine Präbendeneintragung.
Teil 4 ist eine Mischung aus Einkünfteverzeichnis und Traditionsbuch.
Im Text von M gibt es gegenüber dem von K aber noch weitere Überschüsse, zum Beispiel die Summierung der Abgaben eines an den Stiftsspeicher liefernden Hofes am Rand des Heberegisters.
Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede einzelner Buchstabenformen werden in der nun folgenden Schriftanalyse mitberücksichtigt.
Paläographische Analyse Das Schriftbild des Faksimiles zeigt auf den ersten Blick eine Mischung von Buchstabenmerkmalen aus verschiedenen Zeiten.
Unmöglich zu beurteilen ist, ob dies schon in der originalen Handschrift K so gewesen ist oder ob es erst durch die Wiedergabe im Kupferstich entstanden ist.
Bei den folgenden Erwägungen wird davon ausgegangen, daß der Kupferstich dem Original genau entspricht.
Die Schriftprobe weist deutlich wellenförmige Zeilen auf, auch dies ist ein Zeichen für einen etwas nachlässigen Schreibstil.
Schon in den kurzen acht Zeilen kommen verschiedene Formen einzelner Buchstaben vor, zum Beispiel von a, n und i.
So etwa sei hier i vorangestellt:17.
Nun zu den einzelnen Buchstabenmerkmalen.
Zunächst sind einige Merkmale anzuführen, die Bernhard Bischoff als typisch für die Zeit ab dem späten 11.
Jahrhundert beschreibt 1979: 160-171 : 14 Fischer 1804: 156.
Wadstein 1899: 24, Zeile 24.
Wadstein 1899: 31, Zeile 12.
Abbildungen sind zu finden in: Siewert 1991: 33 und in Gallée 1895, Tafeln V a und b.
Zwar kommt die Krallenform schon seit dem 9.
Jahrhundert überwiegend vor, doch die Verlängerung unter die Zeile tritt gewöhnlich erst seit ca.
Auffallend ist die Spitzigkeit des Bogens, auf die weiter unten noch eingegangen wird.
Beide Formen sind in K zu finden.
Die alten Kursivligaturen ct und st kommen um 1100 außer Mode nachdem sie schon seit der Einführung der karolingischen Minuskel immer weniger verwendet wurden.
In diesem Faksimile ist jedoch noch eine vorhanden Zeile 4 des Faksimiles und auch in M taucht an der selben Stelle noch die Ligatur auf.
In der Schriftprobe von K ist aber durchweg noch das gerade d zu finden.
Anders dagegen in Handschrift M.
Hier kommt das runde d neben just click for source geraden vor.
Dieses Nebeneinander der beiden Formen beschreibt Albert Derolez 2003: 60 als charakteristisch für die Zeit ab 1100.
Es ist natürlich möglich, daß an späterer Stelle in K ebenfalls noch ein unziales d vorkam.
In unserer kurzen Probe ist es jedoch nicht nachweisbar.
Für den Laut erscheint laut Bischoff ab dem 11.
Jahrhundert statt uu die festverbundene Form w.
Dagegen ist in M neben uu auch schon w zu lesen, wenn auch nur am Wortanfang.
Ebenfalls laut Bischoff link zwei nebeneinander stehende i ab ca.
Otto Mazal bezeichnet das aufgerichtete a als ein Charakteristikum der späten karolingischen Minuskel 1986: 111.
Stand der Schaft des 18 19 Bischoff 1979: 164f.
Jahrhundert sehr schräg, richtete er sich bis zum Anfang des 12.
Dabei wurde der Bauch sehr klein.
In der Schriftprobe nun kommen verschiedene a-Formen vor: - mit deutlich schrägem Schaft und großem Bauch - mit leicht schräg stehendem Schaft und kleinerem Bauch - mit gerade stehendem Schaft und sehr kleinem Bauch - aber auch mit geradem gebrochenem Schaft.
Anhand des Buchstaben a also läßt sich das Faksimile nicht eindeutig einer bestimmten Zeit zuordnen, da die vorhandenen Formen sich einem Zeitraum vom Ende des 9.
Jahrhunderts bis hin zum Ende des 12.
Maßgebend dürften aber doch die jüngsten Formen sein.
Jahrhundert ist zu beobachten, daß die Zunge des e von ihrer horizontalen Position zu einer Schrägstellung wechselt Derolez 2003: 61.
Diese nach schräg rechts weisende Zunge des e finden wir laufend auch in unserem Faksimile.
Das unter die Zeile reichende r, das für das 10.
Am Wortende hatte sich im 11.
Jahrhundert das runde s eingestellt.
Jahrhundert schrieb man dann auch im Wortinnern gewöhnlich ein rundes s.
Daneben finden sich aber durchaus Handschriften, in denen bis zum Ende des 12.
Im K-Faksimile ist ausschließlich das lange s zu finden, auch am Wortende.
Handschrift M zeigt ebenso nur die lange s-Form.
Das Vorkommen des langen s ist kein klares Argument für eine Einordnung der Handschrift K um 1100, schließt diese jedoch auch keinesfalls aus.
In Schriften des 14.
Jahrhunderts ist der linke Teil des Querbalkens beim t so stark verkürzt, daß zwischen t und c Verwechs- 36 lungsgefahr besteht.
In unserem Beispiel ist eine Kürzung auch schon eindeutig erkennbar, jedoch noch nicht endgültig ausgeprägt.
Doch auch vom t der Karolingischen Minuskel20 des frühen 11.
Jahrhunderts unterscheidet sich das vorliegende t.
Es weist einen aufrechteren Schaft und eine stärker ausgeprägte Verkürzung des linken Balkenteiles auf und ist daher als Weiterentwicklung zu betrachten.
Nun zu den auffälligsten und ungewöhnlichsten Merkmalen des Faksimiles von K.
Es handelt sich um das g, sowie um die oben spitzen m, n und h.
Seit Anfang des 12.
Jahrhunderts wurde das g geschlossen, mindestens der obere, meist aber auch der untere Bogen.
Die unteren g-Bögen von K sind im Gegensatz zu denen in M noch offen.
Insgesamt ist das eher S-förmige g in K auffällig, da es durch die sonst üblichen Schreibweisen schwerlich entstanden sein kann.
Bei der gotischen Minuskel jedoch sind die Schäfte auch am unteren Ende gebrochen.
Dies ist hier aber nicht der Fall.
Doch schreibt Karin Schneider zu den Übergängen von der spätkarolingischen Minuskel zur frühgotischen Schrift, daß in England, Frankreich und Belgien, also relativ nahe dem münsterischen Gebiet, bereits am Anfang des 12.
Jahrhunderts frühgotische Schriften in Gebrauch waren 1987: 9 und sich in östliche Richtung verbreiteten.
Weiter beschreibt sie für Westdeutschland einen eckigen, kantigen Schreibstil, der gute Voraussetzungen für die Gotisierung böte, und sie meint, daß deswegen rheinische Übergangsschriften mit frühgotischen Merkmalen häufig einen beachtlichen zeitlichen Vorsprung hätten.
Wie schon der vorangegangene Zuordnungsversuch von Metz als zweifelhaft erschien, so ist auch dieses Indiz irreführend.
Auf Nachfrage erläuterte Frau Schneider, daß der westdeutsche Stil eher eckig 20 Abb.
Einem Vorschlag von Frau Schneider folgend kann man die verschiedenen Buchstabenformen des Faksimiles vielleicht mit dem Schwanken des Schreibers zwischen angelsächsisch-spitzem und normalem kontinentalen Schreibstil erklären.
Die von Metz bemühten angelsächsischen Missionare25 scheiden wegen des großen Zeitunterschiedes von mindestens 200 Jahren wohl aus.
Insgesamt überwiegen in dem Faksimile die Merkmale von Schriften um 1100, wenn auch einzelne Buchstabenformen in eine frühere bzw.
Die Abweichungen können durchaus der Individualität des Schreibers zugewiesen werden, zumal ja das Heberegister möglicherweise direkt bei der Aufnahme der Güter vor Ort aufgezeichnet wurde.
Auch keiner der befragten paläographisch versierten Wissenschaftler hegte Zweifel daran, daß die Schriftprobe der Zeit um 1100 zugeordnet werden kann.
Karin Schneider vom 3.
Watson 1984, zu g: Tf.
Karin Schneider vom 3.
Darin abgedruckt der Brief von Jacob Grimm vom 20.
Karin Schneider HerrschingHerrn Dr.
Alfred Gawlik MGH MünchenHerrn Dr.
Christian Friedl und Herrn Prof.
Walter Koch Institut für Geschichtliche Hilfswissenschaften der LMU München.
Weiterhin danken wir an dieser Stelle Dr.
Georg Vogeler Institut für Geschichtliche Hilfswissenschaften der LMU München für seine 22 38 Auf eine mögliche Fälschung hin angesprochen, hielten sie dies für unwahrscheinlich.
Ein Argument gegen die Annahme einer Fälschung ist der sehr einheitliche, fließende Duktus von K, der derjenige einer ohne langes Überlegen ausgeführten Handschrift ist.
Anders wäre es bei der vorsichtig ausgeführten Schrift eines Fälschers, der sich müht, eine alte Schrift nachzuahmen.
Ein weiterer Grund sind die Variationen der Buchstabenformen, z.
Nach alledem ist die Schrift des Faksimiles als spätkarolingische Minuskel um 1100 mit insularen Einflüssen einzuordnen.
Die Frage nach der Ursache des insularen Einflusses lassen wir offen.
Nikolaus Kindlinger Will man consider, free slot games with bonus and free spins All die Handschrift K des Freckenhorster Heberegisters schreiben, muß man sich auch mit der Person befassen, in deren Besitz sich die angebliche Rolle laut Fischers Angaben 1804: 156 befand — Nikolaus Kindlinger.
Speziell für unser Thema erhofften wir uns, aus der Persönlichkeit Kindlingers, seiner Arbeitsweise und nicht zuletzt seinem Umgang mit ähnlichen Schriftstücken Rückschlüsse auf seine Glaubwürdigkeit ziehen zu können und damit auf die Klärung der Frage, ob er als Fälscher in Betracht kommt.
Die Informationen über Nikolaus Kindlinger findet man vorwiegend in dem biographischen Werk von Gockeln sowie in der Briefsammlung Grevels.
Kindlinger, 1749 im Rheingau geboren, schlug zunächst die geistliche Laufbahn ein.
Er hatte von Anfang an große Lernschwierigkeiten, unter anderem mit Latein, und hatte keinerlei historische Ausbildung aufzuweisen.
Zu seinen ersten archivarischen Tätigkeiten kam er über Aufträge zur Klärung von Rechtsfällen, wozu er Schriftstücke mit Beweiskraft ausfindig machen sollte.
Mehrfach erwähnt Kindlinger selbst, daß ihm die archivarische Arbeit keinen Spaß machte und er sie quasi als Mittel zum Zweck betrachtete.
Dieser bestand in seinem Falfreundliche Beratung und Unterstützung bei der Abfassung des vorliegenden Aufsatzes.
Schon früh entdeckte er seine Sammelleidenschaft für alte Handschriften und schrieb sie reihenweise ab.
Dabei bewies er großes Geschick.
Bei günstiger Gelegenheit und möglicherweise auch unter Zeitdruck scheute er sich jedoch nicht, Urkunden einfach zu entwenden.
So vermißte zum Beispiel das Fuldaer Archiv nach Kindlingers Tätigkeit einige Originale.
In Mainz kam er in Kontakt mit dem dortigen Archivar und Bibliothekar Franz Joseph Bodmann.
Dieser soll die unglaubliche Menge von 21.
Auch hier schrieb Kindlinger eifrig ab.
Später kam es jedoch zum Zerwürfnis zwischen beiden, da Bodmann sich bei seinen Veröffentlichungen mehrfach ungeniert der Vorarbeiten Kindlingers bedient hatte und diese Gefahr auch weiterhin bestand.
Obwohl Kindlinger Kontakt zu Bodmann und über diesen auch zu dem Salm-Kyrburgischen Archivar Schott hatte, die beide als Fälscher bekannt und entlarvt sind, ist bei ihm selbst kein konkreter Verdacht auf Fälschungsversuche vorhanden.
Im Gegenteil ist es sogar so, daß Kindlinger der to play slot machines win war, der Bodmann neben Plagiaten auch Willkürlichkeiten bzw.
In Kindlingers Handexemplaren der Werke von Bodmann fanden sich eindeutige diesbezügliche Randbemerkungen Darapsky 1959: 13 und 27.
Auch lehnte Kindlinger eine lukrative Anstellung ab, da er wohl befürchtete, in deren Rahmen Urkunden, die sich nicht auffinden ließen, fälschen zu müssen.
Bemerkenswert ist dies vor allem im Hinblick auf seine stets angespannte finanzielle Lage.
Die nach Kindlingers Tod 1819 you and we go slot machine sorry Anschuldigung der Unlauterkeit bezieht sich nicht auf Fälschungen, sondern auf Entwendungen von Handschriften, auf die Wirren um seinen Nachlaß und auf den damit zusammenhängenden Unmut des Fuldaer Archivdirektors Grauel, seines ehemaligen Vorgesetzten.
Im Zweifel also für den Angeklagten.
Fast unmittelbar nachdem Kindlinger am 15.
Die Nachrichten darüber sind deshalb bedeutsam, weil sich die Heberolle in diesem Nachlaß 28 Gockeln 1911: 40.
Eine Bestandsaufnahme der Kindlingerschen Sammlung wurde zunächst durch Streitigkeiten zwischen den Erben verzögert, fand dann aber ab November 1819 doch statt.
Nun sollte die Sammlung versteigert werden.
Die Versteigerung wurde jedoch im letzten Moment verhindert, da sowohl Preußen als auch Bayern und Kurhessen Ansprüche anmeldeten.
Im Besitz Kindlingers sollen sich nämlich, unter anderem auch nach dessen eigenen Angaben, Schriftstücke aus insgesamt mehr als 65 Archiven befunden haben.
Für diese Archive, darunter Fulda, forderten nun die preußische, bayerische und kurhessische Regierung die gegebenenfalls entnommenen Stücke zurück.
Kindlingers Erben wurden ausgezahlt und die Sammlung größtenteils beieinander belassen.
Nach einer kurzen Zwischenstation beim Verein für westfälische Geschichte und Altertumskunde in Paderborn befindet sie sich seit Januar 1844 im Staatsarchiv Münster.
Einige wichtige Stücke wurden abgeschrieben und an das Archiv Fulda und an andere ausgehändigt.
Während dieser ganzen Zeit, bis die Sammlung an ihrem endgültigen Ort angekommen war, ist es durchaus möglich gewesen, einzelne Stücke daraus zu entfernen, besonders im Zeitraum direkt nach Kindlingers Tod.
Erbrochene Siegel an zwischengelagerten Kisten sind ausdrücklich erwähnt.
Möglicherweise ist so das Verschwinden der Handschrift K zu erklären.
Münsterische Lieder und Sprichwörter in plattdeutscher Sprache.
Mit einer Einleitung über Münster´s niederdeutsche Litteratur, Münster, VIII und XXXII.
Paläographie des römischen Altertums und des abendländischen Mittelalters, Berlin.
Die gotischen Schriftarten, Braunschweig.
Die Vermutung Hartigs setzt jedoch voraus, daß der stets ängstlich auf die Bewahrung seiner wertvollen Sammlung bedachte Kindlinger die Rolle Fischer überlassen hätte, was kaum glaublich ist.
The Palaeography of Gothic Manuscript Books.
From the Twelfth to the Early Sixteenth Century, Cambridge, 47-71.
Denkmäler alter Sprache und Kunst.
Denkmäler alter Sprache und Kunst.
Zweites und Drittes Heft, Berlin.
Fischer, Johann Gotthelf, 1804.
Beschreibung typographischer Seltenheiten und merkwürdiger Handschriften nebst Beyträgen zur Erfindungsgeschichte der Buchdruckerkunst.
Das Heberegister des Klosters Freckenhorst nebst Stiftungsurkunde, Pfründeordnung und Hofrecht Veröffentlichungen der historischen Kommission für Westfalen 4;1Münster Fototechnischer Neudruck, Münster 1956.
Gallée, Johan Hendrik Hg.
Walter Gockeln 1970und 1971.
Wiederkehr des Weihetages der Stiftskirche in Freckenhorst am 4.
Festschrift für Felix Wortmann zum 70.
Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der germanischen Philologie.
Mit ausführlichem Glossar, Paderborn.
Münsterische Beiträge zur Geschichte Deutschlands hauptsächlich Westfalens.
Die Urbare der Abtei Werden an der Ruhr.
Die Urbare vom 9.
Jahrhundert, Rheinische Urbare 2Bonn.
Das freiweltliche Damenstift Freckenhorst Germania sacra N.
Einführung in die Handschriftenkunde Bibliothek des Buchwesens 11Stuttgart.
Emmeramer Rotulus des Güterverzeichnisses von 1031.
In: Beiträge zur bayerischen und deutschen Geschichte.
Hans Dachs zum Gedenken Verhandlungen des historischen Vereins für Oberpfalz und Regensburg 106 where viva bingo and slots no deposit confirm, Regensburg, 87-101.
Lehrbuch der Handschriftenkunde Elemente des Buch- und Bibliothekswesens 10Wiesbaden.
Raßmann, Ernst, 1866 und 1881.
Nachrichten von dem Leben und den Schriften Münsterländischer Schriftsteller des 18.
Studien zur deutschen Reproduktionsgrafik des 18.
Jahrhunderts Studien und Materialien zur kunsthistorischen Technologie.
Gotische Schriften in deutscher Sprache.
Jahrhundert bis um 1300.
Mittelalterliches Deutsch in Münster.
Das Wort auf dem Weg zur Schrift — die Schrift auf dem Speaking, slots with free no deposit bonus and free spins think zum Bild".
Westfalen — Rheinland — Niederlande Studien zur Regionalgeschichte 5.
Mit Anmerkungen und Glossar.
Catalogue of dated and datable manuscripts c.
Catalogue of dated and datable manuscripts.
Das Schriftwesen im Mittelalter.
Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik 63 200743-64 GOING BERSERK: IN OLD NORSE, OLD IRISH AND ANGLO-SAXON LITERATURE by Arwen van Zanten — Utrecht Anyone familiar with Old Norse literature is familiar with berserkers and úlfheðnar, the male bear or wolf warrior who sometimes experiences a battle-rage which gives him extraordinary powers Hoops, 1976.
Several scholars have hinted that these berserkers and úlfheðnar might have equivalents in Old Irish literature and the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf.
Therefore, it is worthwhile to investigate whether berserkers and their wolf-equivalents do indeed occur as an early medieval motif in Old Irish literature and the Anglo-Saxon Beowulf poem.
Berserkers in Old Norse Literature In order to study the possible existence of the berserker phenomenon in Old Irish and Anglo-Saxon literature, this motif must first be defined as it is found in Old Norse sources.
When I use the term berserkr, which is in keeping with the Old Norse spelling, it will refer to the Old Norse bear-berserkers only.
A Berserker Model Based on the conclusions from the primary literature in Old Norse a model of berserker characteristics can be drawn up with which to 1 E.
Speidel, 2002; Mallory, 1997; Fields, 1991; McCone, 1990, 1987, 1986; Henry, 1982; Farrell, 1982; Puhvel, 1979; Pettitt, 1976; Eliade, 1972; Arent, 1969; Sjoestedt, 1949.
Because of the scarce text material, the rest of the features do not necessarily have to be present for a positive identification as a berserker.
Of course, the more of these features are present in a warrior, the more likely that he is indeed a berserker.
I: The berserker often has a theriophoric name or a martial animal association.
This is sometimes linked to a taboo on eating the flesh of the animal they are associated with.
II: The berserker often has supernatural associations.
III: The berserker is often described as being precocious in youth, skilled in war, and extremely tall and ugly.
IV: The berserker experiences a battle rage that is often uncontrollable, indiscriminate and accompanied by some sort of feral transformation.
This battle rage is often initiated by howling, being insulted or in directly threatened.
V: While experiencing a battle rage the berserker is capable of extraordinary feats.
These feats are often similar: they become invulnerable, immensely strong and fearless and they attack in the van of battle.
VI: The berserker seems to belong to one of two sets of perimeters: A.
He belongs to a group, is a villain, lives outside society and is bent on attacking.
He is a loner and a hero, is in the service of a king and thus part of society and functions as a protector.
Most of these sources tell of a past between 900 and 1100 AD Simek,1987.
Other berserkers, for example Eythjof, Egil and Böðvar Bjarki, seem to 45 1.
A test-case By means of this model the characters of Odd, Ogmund and Svart from the Örvar Odds saga can be analysed as a test case.
I: Neither Ogmund, Odd or Svart has a theriophoric name, but Ogmunds name starts with Og- which often denotes troll or giant associations.
II: Both Odd and Ogmund have supernatural associations.
He is helped by Odin and has the gift of poetry, and something strange happened to his father due to Lapps.
III: Both Ogmund and Odd are precocious, successful, tall and strong.
Only Ogmund is described as ugly, while Odd is said to be very handsome.
Svart is only described as being precocious and tall.
IV: Only Ogmund can be said to experience a kind of battle rage that is accompanied by some sort of feral transformation, namely when he kills Vignir.
Ogmund kills him by tearing out his throat with his teeth, which would mark Ogmund as an úlfheðinn.
However, Ogmund does this only once and is perfectly controlled for the remainder of the story.
In addition, neither Odd nor Ogmund ever howls.
Nothing is said about Svart in this respect.
V: Only Ogmund and Svart are mentioned as having these characteristics.
Both are invulnerable and fearless.
To show this, Svart is said to fight without armour.
The strength of Ogmund and Odd does not seem to be linked to a battle rage.
There seems to be a tendency to describe the loners in positive terms: they are wise, loyal, honest, idiosyncratic and have high status.
Most group berserkers, however, like the berserkers of Hrolf and Adils, are ascribed negative characteristics: they are proud, greedy, dishonest, dim-witted, offensive and of low status.
However, Odd is also described as belonging to a group of vikings at some point.
Ogmund belongs to a group of men who are all extremely ugly, tall and invulnerable.
Ogmund is the villain of the saga.
Therefore both Ogmund and Svart belong to perimeter B.
This is the case with Odd.
That Ogmund and Svart are berserkers is plausible.
Odd, on the other hand, can as easily be considered an ordinary hero.
It is nonetheless clear that Ogmund embodies the villainous and Odd the heroic.
Berserker equivalents in Old Irish Literature 2.
Since bears have been extinct in Ireland since the Bronze Age, an association with a bear would probably have been far-fetched Birkhan,1997, 712; Mallory, 1992, 117.
Dogs and wolves are often mentioned interchangeably in both Celtic and Germanic traditions Ross, 426; Birkhan, 1970, 366; Green, 19; McCone, 1990, 213.
It seems that the Old Irish word for dog, cú, is a generic term for ferocious canines.
Ríastrad: contortion, usually translated as warp spasm.
These stories were first written down between the seventh and ninth century Mallory, 1992, 29.
However, the subject matter is staged centuries earlier Thurneysen, 1921, 95; Mallory, 1992, 32-33, 52.
These show that in the perception of the Old Irish people, differences between ferocious dogs and wolves were minor.
He received this name after killing a watchdog which belonged to the smith Caulan.
His bond with dogs can also be seen in his geiss, which forbids him to eat dog flesh.
His conception is rather exceptional, due to otherworldly interference which makes it conceivable that the God Lug could be his father.
He beats all his peers at games and is a skillful hunter.
Because of his training with Scáthach, a famous female warrior, he is capable of remarkable martial feats.
These feats are named, but what they actually are is explained nowhere.
However, from the context it becomes clear that they are quite impressive and most unusual Thurneysen, 1921, 91.
Cú Chulainn probably is not regarded as ugly.
The dog-like features have already been mentioned.
The lengths people have to go to, to snap him out of his ríastrad, exemplifies its uncontrollability.
According to Eliade this heat is connected to shamanistic capabilities 474-477.
He does not become invulnerable, although his wounds do not seem to hinder his fighting much.
During the ríastrad Cú Chulainn is invincible and possesses enormous strength, he is able, for instance, to heave up a house Koch, 83.
VI: Cú Chulainn seems to belong to perimeter B.
Cú Chulainn belonged to the boy troop of Emain Macha when younger.
Although there is a sense of solidarity within the group, he stands out so much from his peers that he hardly fits in.
Later in life he is definitely a loner, even though he belongs to the retinue of King Conchobar.
In the Táin Bó Cúailnge, he is the sole protector of Ulster.
From the Ulster point of view, he is definitely a hero.
I think that Cú Chulainn can be said to be a berserker, since he matches almost all characteristics of the berserker model.
Fíanna and Díberga McCone and Sjoestedt consider the Old Irish fíanna and díberga to be the equivalent of roving Viking bands 1986, 20; 87.
Whereas in Christian times fénnidi had a honour price, because their depredations were lawful, the díbergaig were just plain villains, unprotected by any law Meyer, ix; McCone, 1986, 3.
Older sources are not consistent in differentiating between fíanna and díberga McCone, 1986, 4.
Many of its members are aristocratic sons who have not yet come into their inheritance, e.
King Cormac mac Airt belonged to a fían when he was young McCone, 1986, 2, 9, 11; West, 953.
Young men mainly enter into such associations to practice their martial skills and make a name for themselves.
Most of the theriophoric names are reserved for the warbands: one díberg is named Rúadchoin, Red Dogs, and others are referred to as a band of dogs or a rabid retinue.
This is similar to the Old Norse vargr McCone, 1990, 213-214.
He is also said to have been suckled by a she-wolf when he was a baby McCone, 1986, 20; 1990, 214.
The totem of such a group might well have been a dog or wolf, in whose hides the members dressed, or fashioned their hair in such a way as to give a lupine effect West, 955, 957.
This exile has no honourprice, because he is an outsider Kelly, 1988, 6.
His one-eyedness is reminiscent of Cú Chulainn and Egil.
Moreover, just like Skallagrim, he is sharp-sighted.
Sharpe mentions that díbergaig are said to have worn signa diabolica, which might well mean something supernatural, but the reference is so vague that it is multi-interpretable 83.
Only Ingcél Cáech is described in detail but no clue is given as to whether he is thought to be handsome or not.
As broad as an oxenhide was the only eye that protruded from his forehead.
It contained seven pupils.
IV: Whether the fénnidi and díbergaig experience a battle rage is hard to say.
The texts do not answer these questions.
On the other hand, they do provide plenty wolf and dog links, and howling before the attack is also attested.
However, the warbands are never explicitly said to lose control and kill indiscriminately.
The dám dásachtach, who accompany the Rúadchoin, are the only ones that have lost their minds and provide a feral link.
They are not capable of any extraordinary feats.
VI: Fíanna and díberga are warbands.
Are the Rúadchoin berserkers, or only the dám dásachtach that accompany them, or are both berserkers, but in a different way?
The only certainty that is provided by the texts is that all belong to perimeter A, since they are outlaws and brigands.
As for the others, it is clear that there is some sort of martial shape-shifting link, and although not all shape-shifters are berserkers, in this case it is conceivable that they might be.
Secondary literature concerning fíanna and díberga makes this conclusion cumulatively convincing by placing it in a cultural context.
For instance, Nagy and McCone have effectively argued that fíanna and díberga are outlawed initiatory warbands consisting of young men who have not yet come into their inheritance and want to make money and a name for themselves Nagy, 48, 234, 247; McCone, 1986, 2-4, 9, 11.
Moreover, they have also suggested that these warbands used animal re-enactments as a means of initiatory and totemic rites Nagy, 26 The Togail Bruidne Da Derga speaks of two luchthonn, which, according to McCone, are the Old Irish equivalent of úlfheðnar McCone, 1990, 213; West, 961.
This is based on loch, which means dark, and tonn, which means skin DIL, 437, 444, 600.
Lóegaire Buadach is also called a luchthonn Henderson, 56.
This might be due to the level of domesticity, of adaption to society.
Beowulf and Grendel, Anglo-Saxon berserkers?
The subject matter of the Anglo-Saxon Beowulf poem is staged in sixth century Denmark Jones, 2001, 34-35; Beowulf, 5; Mitchell, 183-194.
Some scholars have roman egypt slot machine that Beowulf has certain berserker traits or might even be one.
I think it is likely that this name is of special significance, since it is not in accordance with his family tradition.
It is suggested that his extraordinary gifts were given him by God.
This might imply he has a special relationship with God, just like Cú Chulainn with Lugh and Egil with Odin.
Grendel is also described as being of another world.
His strength also comes from God.
He is what Beowulf is warned against in the story of Heremod.
Beowulf embodies the heroic, whereas Grendel embodies the villainous.
This is similar to the 28 One of the panels of the Gundestrup cauldron depicts young, bare-chested, dinmaking warriors with identical hairdos, accompanied by a wolf and a piece of henbane Flemming.
Breen argues that young men received a new name upon entering a warband to symbolise a break with the past and a new beginning 1997, 5-38.
Both Beowulf and Grendel are invulnerable, Beowulf due to special armour with protective decorations and Grendel due to spells.
Both these things can be perceived as supernatural.
Beowulf has been in contact with Lapps, like Ogmund.
However, in Beowulf there is no explicit link between Lapps and sorcery.
III: Beowulf certainly is precocious, as can be deduced from the exceptional feats he performed when young.
Beowulf is very intelligent and is able to speak eloquently; however, whether this comes under the heading of the special gifts God bestowed on him is unclear.
The fact that he always comes out on top also proves he is successful.
He can do without sleep very well and is a good swimmer, just like Cú Chulainn, and always attacks in the van of battle.
Nothing is mentioned about his appearance, only that he looks like a true hero.
Grendel can also be considered an outlaw, just like Egil and Ingcél Cáech.
Both Beowulf and Grendel are extremely strong: their grip can hold thirty men.
They are both said to be angry and enraged, and, just like Cú Chulainn, swollen.
But is this battle rage also a berserker rage?
The text is inconclusive about that.
The fight is not accompanied slots and wings howling or anything similar.
Neither does there seem to be any sort of feral transformation.
His mother is called a brimwylf, sea-wolf, which might imply a feral link.
Beowulf does not show any sign of transformation.
V: Both Grendel and Beowulf are invulnerable and immensely strong, but neither quality is due to battle rage.
Neither Grzimek nor Pearson mention anything of the sort.
Bears use their forelegs only to hit others when fighting Grzimek, 144.
VI: Beowulf belongs to a comitatus, a warband, Grendel is a loner.
Beowulf belongs to a band of young men, of which he is the leader.
Like the Vikings and fíanna, he lends his services to a king, normally Hygelac, but now Hrothgar for a change.
Maybe because he still has to make a name for himself, he introduces himself as the son of Ecgtheow first.
He still has to come into his inheritance.
However, it is also possible that Beowulf introduces himself as the son of Ecgtheow because it is polite to provide the Danes with a reference.
Beowulf belongs to perimeter B and Grendel to perimeter A.
In the poem there also seems to be something like díberg, lawless raiding bands, since not all bands have good intentions.
The text is too scanty too be conclusive.
It is conceivable that both Beowulf and Grendel might be berserkers.
Research that is not based solely on primary literature might shed some more light on the case of the Anglo-Saxon berserker, by means of providing a cultural background as cumulative evidence.
Conclusion from the Literature The berserker motif is many-facetted and complex.
The idea of a Waffensohnschaft between Beowulf and Hrothgar provides an striking parallel to Cú Chulainn and Conchobar.
Just like Cú Chulainn, Beowulf is given the weapons of the king himself, because other weapons are not good enough.
It does not always become clear with which animal a berserker is associated.
In secondary literature, these animal associations are often explained by totemic or shamanistic traditions within initiatory warbands.
There is also a duality between genuine hamrammir, shape-shifters, and warriors dressed in hides.
The idea behind this, however, is the same: a feral transformation.
There are some deviations within one culture and between the three cultures involved.
However, in all the cultures it is often indiscriminate and uncontrollable.
All berserkers have a link with the supernatural.
Often this takes the form of being on good terms with either Odin, Lugh, or God.
Due to this divine interaction berserkers possess extraordinary abilities.
Upon reaching adolescence many youths who still have to come into their inheritance, form warbands: such as a viking troop, a díberg, fían or comitatus.
Víkingar and díberga always act as independent raiding bands, while the fíanna and comitati are usually in the service of an authority.
After comparing Old Norse berserkers with similar characters in Old Irish heroic literature, I came to the conclusion that it is viable to say that the berserker motif also occurs in Old Irish heroic literature.
However, I do not think one could say the same for Anglo-Saxon heroic literature with certainty.
Since Anglo-Saxon heroic texts are scanty, it is too speculative to argue that the berserker motif occurs in AngloSaxon literature on the basis of one text which is so inconclusive.
In addition to the three literatures examined in the previous paragraphs, I should like to add another paragraph, to examine the theories which attempt to explain the occurrence of berserkers in order to complement the literary evidence.
This will clarify many aspects of the berserker phenomenon, which will strengthen the plausibility of literary berserkers in Old Irish and Anglo-Saxon literature.
Theories on the Occurrence of Berserkers There are four theories which attempt to explain the occurrence of berserkers in the literatures of the Vikings, the Old Irish, and the Anglo-Saxons.
The first theory is concerned with geography and linguistics: all these peoples had intensive cultural contacts during the early Middle Ages.
Moreover, what Old Norse, Old Irish, and Anglo-Saxon cul- 57 tures have in common is that their languages all belong to the centumgroup of the Indo-European language family.
From these Indo-European languages and cultures scholars have constructed a hypothetical Proto Indo-European language and a matching culture Speidel, 9,11; Bender, 50.
This might be the basis of the similarity in culture as well, which makes it more likely that they reinforce each other in a situation of culture contact.
The second theory pertains to history: classical writers wrote about the similarities between Germanic and Celtic cultures when they were neighbours before the Great Migration.
There is archaeological evidence; many statuettes of such naked warriors exist Cunliffe 16, 70, 93, 181; Speidel, 5, 1-17.
Many warriors chant and dance before battle.
Binge-drinking also took place.
This battle madness, wild rage and the battle frenzy of the Germanic and Celtic tribes they describe, could well be other names for going berserk.
The society was tribal and ruled by a king or other powerful leader.
Many of these societal characteristics can also be found in certain present communities: the Masai, several tribes of the North American Indians, South American Matses tribe, Ostjaks, Inuit and Aborigines.
This means that this theory can be subdivided in societal and religious explanations.
The societal explanation provides a cultural background to the fact that, according to several scholars, the berserker motif is bound up with cultic warbands, such as the víkingar, comitatus, fíanna or díberg.
Some believe these warbands are cultic in nature and are often inspired by a canine, lupine or ursine wargod, e.
Odin, Mathu or Apollo Cunomaglus Birkhan, 1970, 365, 433.
The initiation practices are usually totemic rites which involve the killing of the revered animal in order to transfer its powers to the new warrior Sinclair, 1770; Gennep, 68.
This is done in order to sever the initiate from his family and incorporate him into the group, all members of which share this hairdo or dresscode Gennep, 72, 74, 85; Tiger, 131.
In order to mark the transition the initiation often features a binge-drinking or drug-using element, in order to make the initiates 38 McCone, 1987, 102-154; McCone, 1986, 13; Speidel,1-17; Mallory, 1991,110111; 1997, 632-635; Chadwick, 1991, 131-132.
Mathu: Irish God and poet capable of trance.
Apollo Cunomaglus: Apollo the King of Hounds.
Moreover, the societal hierarchy does not apply in these groups; they are not unstructured, however: the most charismatic person has the most power Tiger, 133.
This means, however, that these age-groups might also function to channel adolescent behaviour in order to lift the threat to society Tiger, 151.
These warriorhunter societies with age-grading, dresscodes, hairdos and all-male groups can be recognised in Old Norse, Old Irish and Anglo-Saxon literature on warbands.
Many cultures with naturerelated beliefs contain shamanistic rites for transferring animalistic powers to one or more warriors.
Shamans often possess a certain nervous and psychic susceptibility, which 42 There is a theory that the berserker-fury is the effect of hallucinatory mushrooms, such as the fly-agaric, or Amanita Muscaria Fabing, 409-414; Siikala, 32.
These are the animals in which these people recognise parts of themselves or look to for survival techniques.
Some of these techniques are martial, while others are related to hunting.
The last theory focuses on biological and psychological explanations.
The psychological and biological explanation is based on the nature and make-up of age-grading.
The warbands described above often consist of male adolescents Wit, 14.
Furthermore, according to Tiger, male bonding is likely to be a source of aggression 180-181,190.
Moreover, Noll links zoanthropy to contemporary and medieval warbands all over the world 87.
Zoanthropes alternate between a human and bestial personality Noll, 91, 94.
Some of the symptoms are similar to the characteristics of berserkers, such as the belief that they physically or mentally transform into a particular animal and thus show animal-like behaviour, such as howling and clawing Noll, 96.
They often use drugs or alcohol to achieve 46 Altered state of mind, henceforth called ASC: mental states, induced by various physiological, psychological, or pharmacological maneuvers or agents, which can be recognised as a deviation from norms of behaviour during alert, waking conciousness Siikala, 32.
The idea of a psychosis or personality disorder corresponds well with the information on shamans, who possess a certain psychic susceptibility.
These theories are learn more here mutually exclusive, the geographical and historical explanation might have facilitated cultural contact, which would be reinforced by the cultural similarities that have emerged in the historical and anthropological explanations.
These theories provide a cultural context in which the occurrence of berserkers does not seem as much a fantasy as they seem in literature.
They show that berserkers might have a basis in reality.
The truth about berserkers, if there is one, probably lies somewhere between this cultural context and the literary depiction.
Bibliography Primary Literature Beowulf.
Michael Swanton, Manchester, 1997 Cóir Anmann.
Compert Con Culainn and other Stories.
Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin, 1978.
Dictionary of the Irish Language.
Quin, Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, 1998.
Íslenzk Fornrit II, Reykjavík, 1933.
Sveinsson and Matthías Þorðarson.
Íslenzk Fornrit IV, Reykjavík, 1935.
Fled Bricrend: The Feast of Bricriu.
Irish Texts Society II.
Scriptores Latini See more 8, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin, 1971.
Íslenzk Fornrit VII, Reykjavík, 1956.
Nordisk Filologie A 12, Copenhagen, 1968.
Die Lieder des Codex Regius nebst verwandten Denkmälern, Heidelberg, 1962.
Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks.
Fornaldar Sögur Norðurlanda II, Reykjavik, 1981.
Maartje Draak and Frida de Jong, Amsterdam, 1986.
Fornaldar Sögur Norðurlanda I, Reykjavik, 1981.
Íslenzk Fornrit V, Reykjavík, 1934.
Opuscula, Index lectionem aestivarum 1863.
Carmichael Watson, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin, 1967.
Fornaldar Sögur Norðurlanda II, Reyjavik, 1981.
Polybe: Histoires, Livre II.
Paul Pédech, Paris, 1970.
The History of the Danes.
Hilda Ellis Davidson, Suffolk, 1979.
The Geography of Strabo.
Jones, Loeb Classical Library.
Íslenzk Fornrit XXVI, Reykjavík, 1941.
Íslenzk Fornrit IX, Reykjavík, 1956.
Togail Bruidne Da Derga.
Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin, 1963.
Triadis Thaumaturgœ sem Divorum Patricii, Columbœ, et Brigidœ…Acta.
Íslenzk Fornrit VIII, Reykjavík, 1939.
Subsidia Hagiographica 25, Société des Bollandistes, Bruxelles, 1965.
Secondary Literature Arent, A.
Birkhan, Helmut 1997, Kelten, Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien.
Chadwick, Nora 1991, The Celts, London.
Cunliffe, Barry 1997, The Ancient Celts, Oxford.
Downer, John 1991, Lifesense, London.
Eliade, Mircea 1972, Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy, New Jersey.
Fields, Rick 1991, The Code of the Warrior, New York.
Jones, Gwyn 2001, A History of the Vikings, Oxford.
Mitchell, Bruce and Fred C.
Robinson 1998, Beowulf, An Edition, Oxford.
Nagy, Joseph Falaky 1985, The Wisdom of the Outlaw, Berkeley.
Ross, Anne 1967, Pagan Celtic Britain, London.
Thurneysen, Rudolf 1921, Die Irischen Helden- und Königsage bis zum siebzehnten Jahrhundert, Halle.
Tiger, Lionel 1969, Men in Groups, New York.
Slot 1995, Psychologie van de adolescentie, Baarn.
Zanten, Arwen van 2004, Going Berserk in Old Norse, Old Irish and Anglo-Saxon Literature, MA diss.
Introduction In his discussion of the Glavendrup rune stone DR 209 Michael Lerche Nielsen 1997 discusses, among other things, the use and absence of punctuation marks.
The text on face A has no punctuation mark between stain and þansi, which can be accounted for by the fact that the two words form a close group, but as there are more instances of absence of punctuation marks in this part of the text, the author thinks this absence is rather due to a lack of space.
Note, incidentally, that the last line of face B has its runes quite close together as well and yet there are word dividers between all the words.
Nielsen finishes his paragraph on the punctuation matter with these words: Pladsmangel er en almindelig grund til udeladelse af skilletegn i runeinskrifteren.
This last remark made me go more deeply into the matter.
In doing so, I found that, apart from Glavendrup, there is only one Viking Age rune stone inscription, viz.
Tälje bro, Nä 11, in which punctuation marks occur between only a certain number of the words; their absence is coupled with the runes being close together.
While I was studying these possible links between the presence and absence of punctuation marks and runes being widely spaced or not, I found that the study of rune stone punctuation has a far wider scope.
I hope that this article may offer a few aspects that have not yet got the attention that the subject deserves.
Material used I limited myself to the regions dealt with in DR and SRI, the latter with the exception of Gotland because of the specific character of most of the Gotland inscriptionsÖland on account of this volume of SRI being too dated and Östergötland for the same reason.
I did, however, study the Östergötland inscriptions that are dealt with as newly found stones in Fv.
All other new finds discussed in both Fv and Moltke 1985 were incorporated in my study.
I left out of consideration those cases which are dubious cf.
As regards the Danish inscriptions I did not treat those belonging to the so-called Helnæs-Gørlev group, on account of the transitional character of these inscriptions.
Although there are fairly great differences in the runic tradition in Denmark, I dealt with the inscriptions in DR as belonging to one region.
The total number of inscriptions studied amounts to 830.
These are spread over the different regions as follows: DR 139; Gs 7; Nä 13; Sm 44; Sö 146; U 398; Vg 68; Vs 9; Ög 6.
I shall relatively rarely refer to one of the most extensive articles on punctuation marks in runic inscriptions, viz.
The reason is that this author uses arguments for the use and non-use of these marks based almost exclusively on linguistic grounds, while other aspects are hardly to be found.
Eight categories In order to find out whether there is a relation between the use and non-use of punctuation marks and the runes being widely spaced or crowded, I distinguished 8 categories: 1.
The numerical data regarding these 8 categories are: Table 1 a category 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Total DR N 97 1 25 2 9 1 4 189 % 69.
Category 1 What is most striking here is the large percentual difference between DR and U.
Note also that the percentage of Sö is nearest to that of U, while those of Vg and Sm are nearest to that of DR.
It is striking that the inscription of Vickeby, U 747, has many runes back to tem4500 4 slot egg and very short branches, probably because of lack of space,1 and yet there are punctuation marks between all the words.
Category 2 The number of inscriptions in this category is too small to make any conclusions possible, although it is striking that the two inscriptions are to be found in DR and Vg.
Category 3 The percentages for DR, Dm and Vg are close, and so are those for U and Sö.
Striking in the inscriptions of this category is the fact that 33 out of the total number of 65 show crowding of the runes at the end of the inscriptions.
Category 4 This type is extremely rare, see Table 1.
Category 5 I have not been able to find any examples of this type, although I must draw attention to Vordingborg DR 221which has more traits that point to the runographer being confronted with lack of space.
This inscription was left out of account, as it probably belongs to the HælnesGorlev group.
Category 6 Here again U and Sö are closest together: their percentages are the highest.
The grouping of DR with Sm and Vg on the one hand and U with Sö on the other becomes even clearer when those cases are deducted where the non-use of a punctuation mark occurs only once.
This would yield the following percentages: DR 2.
A few inscriptions deserve some special attention.
Frölunda Sö 222 has quite wide spacing and yet in two out of seven instances there is no punctuation mark.
Meijer 1992, 48 see also Nielsen 1983, 76 69 Husby Lyhundra U 544 has wide spacing at the end of the inscription but this final part is without punctuation marks.
Bragby U 879 has no punctuation marks in 9 out of 10 cases in spite of the wide spacing.
Torresta U 848 is a case similar to that of U 879, with 6 out of 8 instances without punctuation marks.
Category 7 The two inscriptions in this category were already mentioned in the introductory section 1.
Note that in Tierp U1144 the runes 113 a and 114 R are very close together, but that in spite of this there is a final punctuation mark.
Category 8 If those cases are deducted with only one occurrence of non-use of a punctuation mark, as was done in section 3.
Although DR and Vg are once more close together, it is striking that U shows a fairly low percentage, especially when compared with Sö.
The cause may be the small number of inscriptions, which may make the percentages unreliable.
A few remarks about inscriptions in this category: The first 6 words of Apelboda Nä 29 are crowed and have two punctuation marks; the last five words are more widely spaced and yet in three instances the punctuation marks are absent.
Osta Sö 202 : the initial and final parts are crowded, but absence of punctuation marks twice occurs only at the end of the inscription.
Strängnäs Sö 280too, has crowded runes at the beginning and the end of the inscription, yet of the two instances of absence of punctuation marks, one occurs in the initial part and the other in the part of the inscription that is widely spaced.
Snottsta U 331 has irregular spacing: it is only the final words that have no punctuation mark; the part that is most crowded does have these marks.
Frustune Sö 10 has crowded runes at the end of the inscription; there is no punctuation mark between the last two words.
The same goes for Korpbron Sö 139.
Turinge Sö 338 : non-use of a punctuation mark occurs six times, mostly in the part which is crowded.
First conclusion On the whole one gets the impression that there is litte or no connection between lack of space and the absence of punctuation marks.
Later on in this article other ways to account for slots and wings absence will be investigated section 5.
Different shapes of punctuation marks 4.
Introductory Not surprisingle, the shapes of the punctuation marks are mentioned and sometimes extensively discussed especially in general runological works.
Thus Brøndum-Nielsen 1933, 141 enumerates the punctuation marks that occur in the Danish inscriptions.
This is also done, on a much larger scale, in DR col.
The frequency with which the different shapes occur is naturally touched upon by several authors, though exact numerical data are usually lacking.
Numerical data Tables 2a-2i contain a numerical survey of the occurrence of the several shapes of the punctuation marks.
Because of their possible connection with regionality, there is a table for each of the districts dealt with.
Special attention is also paid to the opening and concluding marks.
In section 5 I shall discuss the omission of punctuation marks see also section 3.
In the tables all the punctuation marks have been incorporated, including the opening and concluding marks.
Again, I left the percentages for Gs, Nä, Vs and Ög out of consideration since the number of punctuation marks in these four disctricts is too small to be reliable.
U number 1342 583 1036 411 946 122 4440 % 30.
Opening and concluding marks When the opening and concluding marks are left out, it turns out that the percentages are practically the same as those of tables 2a-2i.
So it would seem that, as regards shape, these specially positioned marks do not play an important part.
When only the opening and concluding marks are cosidered, striking differences as compared with the percentages of tables 2a-2i are seen in only three marks in Sö and four marks in U: Table 4 : x + i Sö U Sö U Sö U U % of punctuation marks without opening and concluding marks 48.
When the different shapes of the opening marks are compared with those of the concluding marks, we find a clear correspondence, with two exceptions.
But it also turns out that on the other hand 8 shapes occur only in in non-initial and non-final positions.
Some interfering factors Unavoidably, there are factors that may influence reliability in the study of punctuation marks on rune stones.
As long ago as 1887 Wimmer 1887, 165 warned that punctuation marks may have got lost, but also that rough spots in the surface of the stone may mistakenly be held to be punctuation marks.
Another factor to be considered, although its overall influence is probably slight, is the use of the the punctuation mark as a form of decoration, or at least for more or less decorative purposes.
Absence of punctuation marks 5.
Numerical data Table 5 deals with the relation between the use and non-use of word dividers.
Once more the data are given per region.
Again, no percentages are given for Gs, Nä, Vs and Ög as their numbers are too small to be relevant.
So Table 6 shows the data for Uppland, per district.
For a list of the 75 numbers and names of these districts, see Appendix 1.
In the sections on regionality 10 and chronology 11 this table is referred to.
Use and non-use of opening and concluding punctuation marks Table 7 gives numerical data about punctuation marks at the beginning and end of the inscriptions, with the following subdivisions: i.
In the last column the three subdivisions have been added together.
When either opening or concluding mark is unreadable, the whole inscription was not treated.
Backgrounds to the absence of punctuation marks Obviously, a number of authors, when dealing slots and wings punctuation marks, have tried to account for the non-use of these marks.
Thus their absence is linked with the occurence of close word groups.
Jörgensen 1973, 121-126 gives an extremely detailed account, mentioning e.
Accounting for the absence of punctuation marks is not only done on linguistic grounds.
Some authors see the use of different colours in order to distinguish between the separate words or parts of the sentence, as a substitute for punctuation marks.
Finally I draw attention to the complete survey of the absence of punctuation marks in Danish inscriptions in DR, col.
Different punctuation marks in one inscription The fact that different punctuation marks are used in one inscription is mentioned by Brøndum Nielsen op.
Both authors suggest that this phenomenon is of fairly rare occurence.
Stille 1999, 119 goes more deeply into the matter.
Out of 112 Fjädrundaland inscriptions, he says, 62 have only one type of punctuation mark.
In connection with the numbers I shall give in Table 8, it may be interesting to add that the 50 inscriptions with more than one type of punctuation mark represent 44.
Jörgensen 1973, 124 not only states that there are inscriptions in which different types of punctuation marks are used, but — at least in one instance — accounts for this fact: in Ekilla bro U 643 the word divider between faþur and sin is ·whereas the other marks are all of the x type.
The close word group is thus marked in a special way.
Table 8 gives the numbers of inscriptions in which more than one type of punctuation mark is used: they are given according to the different regions.
The percentages are given in relation to the total number of inscriptions in the region concerned.
Those inscriptions which have no punctuation marks at all were left out.
Again, no percentages are given for Gs, Nä, Vs and Ög because of the small number of inscriptions.
Punctuation marks in signed inscriptions and attribution 7.
Introductory It is especially with regard to the question of identity and attribution that the study of punctuation marks in signed inscriptions may be of importance.
This was realized by several authors.
Thompson 1975 devotes much space to the question of punctuation marks as well, in this case mainly in connection with the attribution of inscriptions to Åsmund Kåreson and some others.
My material consists of the signed inscriptions in the DR and the Swedish regions.
I have not considered those cases where it is not clear whether the name — usually at the end of the inscription — is that of the runographer.
Nor have I incorporated what might be called pseudo-signatures, i.
Where necessary, I made a distinction between inscriptions by five 79 runographers whose work is fairly large in quantity and the remaining signed inscriptions: Balle, Fot, Visäte, Öpir and Åsmund Kåreson.
The remaining inscriptions are distributed by region as follows: DR 7; Gs 2; Sm 2; Sö 24; U 60; Vg 2; Vs 4.
For a more detailed survey of these inscription, see Appendix 2.
He gives a few examples: Lindö U 236 : uiseti hiuk, and Grymsta backe U 629 : þurfastr hristi runoR.
The third example given does not apply, since the person mentioned is not the runographer but the sponsor: Risbyle U 161 : ulfkil lit akua.
I went more extensively into the question of the absence of punctuation marks in signatures and compared this absence with the same phenomenon in the rest of the inscription concerned.
Tables 9 and 10 give the numbers of signed inscriptions with punctuation marks between all the words in the signature +those with no marks at all - and those that have only partial punctuation ±.
Table 9 gives the situation for the signed inscriptions not by the five runographers mentioned above, and in Table 10 the data are given for these five runographers.
Table 9 region + - ± DR 7 - - Gs 1 1 - Sm 2 - - Sö 16 2 6 U 36 13 11 Vg 2 - - Vs 3 - 1 Apparently, the use of punctuation marks between all the words in the signature is predominant, apart from the instance of Gs.
Absence of punctuation marks in the signature will only be meaningful when we compare it with the absence of these marks in the rest of the inscription concerned.
For the signed inscriptions with the exclusion of those signed by the five runographers, I found that out of 91 inscriptions only 5 show a pattern where use versus absence of the punctuation marks in the signature and the rest of the inscription are widely different.
In 2 instances the signature has no punctuation marks while the rest of the inscription has them between all the words: Lund Gs 12 and Söderby U 171.
In one instance the signature has no punctuation marks while the rest of the inscription has them between a large number of the words: Bällsta U225where marks are used in 13 cases, absent in 7.
In one instance, Ekeby U 308the ratio use : non-use in the signature is 2 : 2, in the rest of the inscription 0 : 9.
Finally Blacksta U 919 has punctuation marks between all of the words of the signature, while the ratio use : non-use for the rest of the inscription is 8 : 7.
So generally speaking there is a fair correspondence between the use and non-use in the signature and the rest of the inscription.
For the use and non-use in the rest of the inscriptions by the five runographers mentioned above, I have only studied those inscriptions that are practically complete, so that the numbers are smaller than in Table 10.
Fot: One inscription has punctuation marks between all the words, one has the ratio use : non-use 16 : 1.
Visäte: No inscriptions have punctuation marks between all the words; four show the ratios 7 : 1 - 14 : 1 - 34 : 7 - 10 : 3 respectively.
Öpir: 8 inscriptions have punctuation marks between all the words.
Åsmund Kåreson: None of the six incriptions have punctuation marks between all the words.
There is a fair correspondence between the use and non-use in the two sections of the inscriptions.
Balle is clearly the most consistent of the five in the use of punctuation marks.
Åsmund Kåreson is also consistent, but in his case in the non-use of marks.
Öpir presents himself als the most capricious of the five.
Runographers and the shapes of the punctuation marks Since the shape of the punctuation mark may be of help in attributing anonymous inscriptions to certain runographers, it is useful to see which shapes are used by our five runographers.
Table 11 shows the distribution of the several types.
Fot is very consistent in the use of a favourite shape.
To a lesser degree, this is also true for both Balle and Åsmund Kåreson see also Wessén 1957, 13and much less so for Öpir.
Visäte seems the least consistent of the five.
Punctuation marks and identity By studying the data from Table 11, I found, for each of the five runographers, a number of inscriptions that can, on the basis of the use and absence of several punctuation marks, be attributed to the runographer in question, another number whose attribution is dubious, and a third set whose attribution is refuted.
By way of comparison I checked the attributions in Axelson 1993 and in a few instances in Stille 1999.
I found cases where my findings and the attributions as given in Axelson and by Stille correspond, but I only compared my findings with those in Axelson where the several authors are unanimous in their conclusions: attributed, dubious or refuted.
I found corresponding attributions for the following inscriptions: Balle: attributed: Sö 209, U 650, U 690, U 703, U slots and wings, U 708, U 723, U 724; dubious: Sö 321; refuted: U 755, U 803.
Fot: attributed: U 202, U 255, U 256, U 269, U 471, U 899; dubious: U 62, U 80, U 121, U 164, U 165, U 261, U 510, U 624, U 640; refuted: U 102, U 112, U 186, U 948.
Visäte: attributed: none; dubious: U 73, U 180, U 238, U 293, U 350, U 453, U 503, U 511, UFv 1972,172; refuted: none.
Öpir: attributed: U 232, U 311, U 974; dubious: U 173, U 195, U 231, U 252, U 511, U 618, U 684, U 914, U 925, U 933, U 938, U 939, U 950, U 959, U 987, U 1014, U 1036, U 1039A, U 1046, U 1084, U 1085, U 1096, U 1176; refuted: U 1140.
Åsmund Kåreson: attributed: U 241, U 344, U 357, U 372, U 431; dubious: U 203, U 885; refuted: U 484, U 904, Gs 7.
There is, moreover, a possibility that runographers went through a development regarding the use of several types of punctuation marks.
The preceding subsection made it clear that the predominance of one certain punctuation mark differs from one runographer to another.
The more or less frequent use of several punctuation marks made it more difficult to decide the reliability of attribution.
It should also be realized that the punctuation mark is only one of the factors that may be used in attribution, so that our survey can only be used in modest support of attribution, dubiety or refutation of the inscription concerned, but I hope I have demonstrated that the use of the several types of punctuation marks and their absence can to a slight degree contribute to the matter of attribution.
Functions of the punctuation mark 8.
For a detailed description I refer to the article in question; what Jörgensen says about punctuation marks in the middle of words p.
That something is terminologically wrong was clearly felt by Thompson 1975, 8f.
Table 12 shows the number of instances where the opening and concluding punctuation marks differ from the other marks in the inscription.
The percentages are percentages of the total number of inscriptions I studied.
No percentage is given for Gs since the total number of inscriptions is too small to be relevant.
Table 12 region number % DR 6 4.
This fact may make the data of Table 12 unreliable.
Table 13 region number % DR 4 2.
The idea that the opening marks should be a way to indicate where the inscription starts is not very convincing if one considers the fact that in 121 instances there is an opening mark but no concluding one, whereas in 98 instances the situation is the reverse: a concluding mark but no opening mark.
It is true that the number in the former category is larger, but not so much larger that any conlusion can be drawn: 55.
It is striking, however, that the smallest percentages of the former category opening mark but no concluding mark occur in DR and Vg 38.
This might be an indication that these differences have either a chronological or a regional background.
As is to be expected, this name is the first word of the inscription.
It is tempting to think that this sponsor proudly drew attention to himself in this way cf.
Decorative function For this function of the punctuation mark I refer to section 4.
Unfortunately, neither author gives any argument to support his statement.
There can be no doubt that the occurrence of a decorative cross on a runestone points to the influence of Christianity, as well as the usually final - prayer formula.
It is not unthinkable that adherence to slots and wings Christian faith was also demonstrated by the use of crosses as punctuation marks.
As the occurrence of only one cross-shaped punctuation mark may be accidental, I have deducted those inscriptions in which only one such mark is found.
Again, no percentages are given for Gs, Näm Vs and Ög as their numbers are too small.
Table 14 region cross-shaped marks number % DR 3 11.
Nothing is proved by these numbers, but I feel they merit some attention.
There are also a few cases where there are indications of paganism coupled with the occurrence of cross-shaped punctuation marks.
In none of these do cross-shaped punctuation marks occur.
The inscription Vg 150 contains three cross-shaped punctuation marks, none occur in any of the others cf.
No hammers or Thor formulae are to be found in Uppland.
This also seems to indicate that the shape of the punctuation marks is hardly influenced by Christianity.
It looks very much as if the cross-shaped punctuation marks have little or nothing to do with Christianity, but the number of pagan inscriptions is too small to draw any conclusions.
Thompson 1975, 17 and 30.
In some instances it seems possible that the runographer crafted the mainstaffs of each word, or word group, first and then added the branches.
Should he have placed the punctuation mark before or after the wrong mainstaff, this could hardly be corrected.
In Berg Sö 192 we find kuþa.
If this is what actually happened occasionallyanother example is even more interesting.
In Lunda U 354 we find h:ans.
My suggestion is that the mainstaffs were crafted from right to left, but that there was one too few, so that there was none for h.
Again, when the runographer had finished his mainstaffs and punctuation mark and was adding the branches, he discovered his mistake, which could not be corrected.
It should be noted that there is no mark between h:ans and the preceding ant.
Although Norway is outside the scope of our material, two Norwegian examples are relevant here.
In Rauland N 179 we find ræs … t.
This seems to imply that the punctuation marks were put in last.
Incidentally, this inscription is in metal and is medieval.
The other Norwegian inscription is Urnes N 319where we find ond … u.
In my view this may have been due to his crafting the mainstaffs first.
This medieval inscription is in wood.
This would contradict my theory.
But he adds that when making inscriptions in wood or bone, he cuts all the mainstaffs first; this is done because the knife is held in a different 90 way for cutting mainstaffs than for cutting branches.
Flåsta Sö 59 : faþu:r.
Botkyrka Sö 283 : lit:u.
Bergaholm Sö 302 : a:ustain.
In this case I suggest that the runographer wrote the mainstaffs first and also the punctuation marks, after which he added the branches, starting from the end of the word.
Especially if the runographer was an illiterate, the direction in which he wrote was of no importance to him.
This is a most remarkable case: the inscription starts in the tail of the rune animal, bottom right, it continues to the top, with 37-39 sin as the last word; after that the inscription is continued from the bottom left and upwards until it meets the first part of the inscription, where the word s.
Snottsta U 330 : bont x a.
Note that the next word, sinis not preceded by a punctuation mark.
In two inscriptions the punctuation mark seems to have been put in too late: Slots and wings U73 : b l reþr.
Note that there is no dividing mark between this word and the preceding one.
The b is at the end of a part of the inscription that is outside the text band; the rest of the word is also outside the band, but not as a direct continuation of the b.
Berga U 947 : h:iabi.
Note that here there is no punctuation mark before the h.
See also Peterson 1992, 91 f.
Kynge U 700 : hialub.
Abrahamstorp Dagsnäs Vg 122 : filuk:a:.
A punctuation mark seems to have been forgotten in Västerås Vg 13.
Another mistake seems to occur in Svinnegarn U 780 : est is followed by a horizontal line.
Jansson SRI 8, 365 is undoubtedly right when he supposes that the runographer forgot to craft the vertical line, which would have resulted in a cross-shaped punctuation mark.
Since the numbers of the inscriptions in the eight categories are very different, I give a total survey in Table 16.
In this table I have included all the inscriptions I studied, incorporating also those to which the Gräslund typology does not apply.
For the same reason the Pr.
So it is only the Fp type which corresponds very well with categories 1, 3, 6 and 8.
This might be a confirmation of the correctness of the dating of this type.
As to the other four types, there is no correspondence with my categories.
In other words, it is very dubious whether the way in which the incriptions were constructed according to the eight categories is in any way connected with the Gräslund typology.
Shape and chronology Another way of finding out whether there is any connection between the Gräslund typology and punctuation is to compare the typology with the distribution of the shapes of the punctuation marks.
In order to avoid an accumulation of data, I distinguished two groups of punctuation mark types, viz.
In Table 17 the percentages are those of the toal number.
One point appears to be a possible indication:.
However, it is difficult to draw reliable conclusions 94 from these numbers and percentages, although they should certainly not be disregarded.
Regionality The situation seems to be slightly more favourable when we look at the shapes of punctuation marks and the regions in which they occur.
It is a pity that Rune Palm 1992 does not pay any attention to the punctuation marks in connection with regionality, apart from mentioning them on p.
In the present section I shall limit myself to some preliminary findings.
Because of the greater reliability in Södermanland, Västergötland and Uppland, I shall only make a few remarks upon punctuation marks and regionality for these three disctricts.
For Vätergötland I found a fairly even distribution of the two types.
So here there seems to be hardly any preference for either of these classes.
In Södermanland there is a fairly distinct preference for the.
This is particularly interesting in connection with the occurrence of this class in Uppland, see the next paragraph.
The number of inscriptions is Uppland is large, so the data are more reliable.
Conclusion Although in this article I have only touched in a general way upon certain aspects of the matter of punctuation marks, I think that several of the aspects may be an inducement to go more deeply into this matter.
It must be clear from my study that it is absolutely necessary to not only look at the use or non-use of punctuation marks from the linguistic point of view.
References Arntz 1944: Helmut Arntz, Handbuch der Runenkunde.
Halle-Saale Axelson 1993: Jan Axelson, Mellansvenska runristare.
Förteckning över signerade och attribuerade inskrifter.
Stockholm-Oslo-København Nordisk kultur 6114-144.
Moltke under medvirkning af A.
StockholmOslo-København Nordisk kultur 6145-248.
Tidskrift för svensk antikvarisk forskning 1-1906ff.
Om religionsskiftet i Skandinavien från en arkeologisk horisont.
Gs: Gästriklands runinskrifter granskade och tolkade av S.
Jesch 1998: Judith Jesch, Still Standing cops and robbers slot Ågersta.
Textuality and Literacy in Late Viking-Age Rune Stone Instcriptions.
In: Runeninschriften als Quellen interdisziplinärer Forschung: Abhandlungen des Vierten Internationalen Symposiums über Runen und Runeninschriften in Göttingen vom 4.
Jörgensen 1973: Nils Jörgenson, Skiljetecken i runinskrifter.
In: ANF 88, 118-32.
Krause 1970: Wolfgang Krause, Runen.
Lager 1995: Linn Lager, Kors på svenska runstenar.
Runstenskors som en spegling av kristnandet i Sverige.
Loman 1965: Bengt Loman, Rökrunorna som grafematiskt system.
In: ANF 80, 1-60.
Meijer 1992: Jan Meijer, Planning in runic inscriptions.
In: Blandade runstudier 1.
Uppsala Runrön 637-66.
In: Blandade runstudier 2.
Uppsala Runrön 1183-110.
In: ANF 115, 23-31.
Moltke, 1985: Erik Moltke, Runes and their origin.
Musset 1965: Lucien Musset, Introduction à la runologie.
In: Beretning fra sekstende tværfaglige vikingsymposium.
Et udvalg med kommentarer.
NIyR: Norges innskrifter med de yngre runer.
Oslo Norges innskrifter inntil reformasjonen 2.
Nä: Närkes runinskrifter granskade och tolkade av S.
Olsen 1954: Magnus Olsen, Runic inscriptions in Great Britain, Ireland and the Isle of Man.
In: Viking antiquities in Great Britain and Ireland 6.
Palm 1992: Rune Palm, Runor och regionalitet.
Studier av variation i de nordiska minnesinskrifterna.

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